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Brain. 2020 Mar 16. pii: awaa009. doi: 10.1093/brain/awaa009. [Epub ahead of print]

Consensus on the reporting and experimental design of clinical and cognitive-behavioural neurofeedback studies (CRED-nf checklist).

Author information

1
Departments of Neuroscience and Psychiatry, University of Geneva; Campus Biotech, Geneva, Switzerland.
2
Department of Clinical Neuropsychology, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.
3
Department of Biomedical Sciences of Cells & Systems, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.
4
Laureate Institute for Brain Research, Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA.
5
University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
6
Institute of Psychology, University of Graz, Graz, Austria.
7
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA.
8
Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA.
9
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Macau, Macau, China.
10
Campus Biotech, University of Geneva, Switzerland.
11
Institut PiPsy, Draveil, France.
12
Institute of Bioengineering, Center for Neuroprosthetics, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL); Campus Biotech, Geneva, Switzerland.
13
Faculty of Health, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel.
14
Beer-Sheva Mental Health Center, Israel Ministry of Health, Beer-Sheva, Israel.
15
Living Health Center for Research and Education, Istanbul, Turkey.
16
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA.
17
Institute for Medical Psychology and Behavioral Neurobiology, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.
18
Neurobiology and Biobehavioral Psychiatry, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
19
Boston University School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Boston, MA, USA.
20
Department of Cognitive Neuroscience, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
21
Clinical Neurotechnology Laboratory, Neuroscience Research Center (NWFZ), Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy (CCM), Charité - University Medicine Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
22
Institute of Biological and Medical Engineering, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Macul, Santiago, Chile.
23
Ottawa University, Surprise, Arizona, USA.
24
Department Clinical Psychology, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.
25
Department of Basic Psychological Research and Research Methods, Faculty of Psychology, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
26
Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, Psychiatric Hospital, University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.
27
University of Salzburg, Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience and Department of Psychology, Salzburg, Austria.
28
Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK.
29
Laseeb-ISR-IST Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal.
30
Technion, Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel.
31
Cognitive Science Department, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA.
32
Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, Central Institute of Mental Health Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim/Heidelberg University, Germany.
33
National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russia.
34
Department of Psychology, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai, China.
35
Bitbrain®, Zaragoza, Spain.
36
SANPSY, USR 3413, Université Bordeaux, CHU de Bordeaux, Place Amelie Raba Leon, Bordeaux, France.
37
Department of Psychiatry, University of Münster, Münster, Germany.
38
Department of Psychology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, USA.
39
Inria Bordeaux Sud-Ouest/LaBRI University of Bordeaux - CNRS-Bordeaux INP, Bordeaux, France.
40
Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, School for Mental Health and Neuroscience, Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
41
Department of Psychology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA.
42
Center for Bioelectric Interfaces of the Institute for Cognitive Neuroscience, National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russia.
43
Department of Information and Internet Technologies of Digital Health Institute; I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow, Russia.
44
Duke Center for Neuroengineering, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA.
45
Department of Psychiatry, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada.
46
Department of Psychology I, Psychological Intervention, Behavior Analysis and Regulation of Behavior, University of Würzburg.
47
Neuropsychology Lab, Department of Psychology, University of Oldenburg, Oldenberg, Germany.
48
Magnetic Resonance Research Center (MRRC), Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA.
49
Medical University of Vienna, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Vienna, Austria.
50
JARA-Institute Molecular neuroscience and neuroimaging (INM-11), Jülich Research Centre, Jülich, Germany.
51
Department of Psychology, The University of Sheffield International Faculty, City College, Thessaloniki, Greece.
52
CLLE Lab, CNRS, Université Toulouse Jean Jaurès, Toulouse, France.
53
Faculty of Psychology and Neuroscience, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
54
Multimodal imaging and Cognitive Control Lab, Department of Psychology, University of Olso, Norway.
55
Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA.
56
Electrical Engineering Department, Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands.
57
Sagol Brain Institute, Wohl Institute for Advanced Imaging, Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv, Israel.
58
Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.
59
Division of Neurorehabilitation, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University Hospital Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.
60
Division of Functional and Restorative Neurosurgery, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.
61
Department of Psychology, Goldsmiths, University of London, London, UK.
62
Univ. Lille, INSERM U1172, CHU LILLE, Centre Lille Neuroscience & Cognition, Pôle de Psychiatrie, F-59000, Lille, France.
63
UNAM Institute of Neurobiology, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Juriquilla, Mexico.
64
Psychophysiology and Optical Imaging, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.
65
Department of Child and Adolescent, Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Psychiatric Hospital, University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.
66
Omneuron, Inc., Menlo Park, CA, USA.
67
Department of Surgery, Section of Neurosurgery, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
68
Department of Psychological Sciences Birkbeck, University of London, Bloomsbury, London, UK.
69
GIPSA-lab, CNRS, University Grenoble Alpes, Grenoble-INP, Grenoble, France.
70
School of Computing and Mathematical Sciences, University of Greenwich, London, UK.
71
Radboud University Nijmegen, Department of Clinical Psychology, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
72
Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim/Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany.
73
Laureate Institute for Brain Research, Tulsa, OK, USA.
74
Institute for Medical Psychology and Behavioural Neurobiology, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.
75
State Research Institute of Physiology and Basic Medicine, Novosibirsk, Russia.
76
School of Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece.
77
School of Psychology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK.
78
Brainclinics Foundation, Research Institute Brainclinics, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
79
School of Psychological Science, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.
80
MRC Integrative Epidemiology Unit at the University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.

Abstract

Neurofeedback has begun to attract the attention and scrutiny of the scientific and medical mainstream. Here, neurofeedback researchers present a consensus-derived checklist that aims to improve the reporting and experimental design standards in the field.

KEYWORDS:

checklist; consensus; guidelines; neurofeedback; regulation

PMID:
32176800
DOI:
10.1093/brain/awaa009

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