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Methods Mol Biol. 2020;2123:383-392. doi: 10.1007/978-1-0716-0346-8_29.

Type A Influenza Virus Detection from Horses by Real-Time RT-qPCR and Insulated Isothermal RT-PCR.

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Louisiana Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory and Department of Pathobiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, USA.


Equine influenza (EI) is a highly contagious disease of horses caused by the equine influenza virus (EIV) H3N8 subtype. EI is the most important respiratory virus infection of horses and can disrupt major equestrian events and cause significant economic losses to the equine industry worldwide. Influenza H3N8 virus spreads rapidly in susceptible horses and can result in very high morbidity within 24-48 h after exposure to the virus. Therefore, rapid and accurate diagnosis of EI is critical for implementation of prevention and control measures to avoid the spread of EIV and to reduce the economic impact of the disease. The probe-based real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assays targeting various EIV genes are reported to be highly sensitive and specific compared to the Directigen Flu-A® test and virus isolation in embryonated hens' eggs. Recently, a TaqMan® probe-based insulated isothermal RT-PCR (iiRT-PCR) assay for the detection of EIV H3N8 subtype has been described. These molecular-based diagnostic assays provide a fast and reliable means of EIV detection and disease surveillance.


EIV; Equine influenza; Equine influenza virus; Insulated isothermal RT-PCR; RT-qPCR; Real-time RT-PCR; iiRT-PCR

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