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Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl. 2020 Jan-Feb;31(1):235-244. doi: 10.4103/1319-2442.279946.

Acute kidney injury in pediatric patients with malaria: A prospective cross-sectional study in the shai-osudoku district of Ghana.

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Department of Medical Laboratory Science, School of Allied Health Sciences, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana.
Department of Molecular Medicine, School Medical Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana.
Department of Chemical Pathology, School of Basic and Allied Health Sciences, University of Ghana, Legon, Accra, Ghana.
Medical Laboratory Unit, Dansoman Polyclinic, Accra, Ghana.


Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a highly fatal complication of malaria. We used the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) and Pediatric Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, End-Stage Kidney Disease (pRIFLE) guidelines to assess AKI among children. One hundred children with Plasmodium falciparum malaria were recruited from the St. Andrew's Catholic Hospital. Admission and 48-h serum creatinine were estimated. Weight and height of the participants were measured, and AKI status determined with the KDIGO and pRIFLE guidelines. A questionnaire was used to collect the socio-demographic and clinical data of participants. Two percent and 5% of the participants had AKI according to the KDIGO and pRIFLE criteria, respectively. Per the KDIGO guidelines, 1% of the participants had Stage 2 and 1% also had Stage 3 AKI. Four percent had Stage 1 (risk) and 1% had Stage 2 (injury) AKI per the pRIFLE criteria. Participants with AKI were dehydrated, and neither had sepsis or on antibiotics when the KDIGO guideline was used. Participants who had AKI were dehydrated, with 80% having sepsis and 40% on antibiotics when the pRIFLE criteria were used. There was no association between the KDIGO and pRIFLE criteria with respect to AKI status of participants (k = -0.029, P = 0.743). Two percent and 5% of the study participants had AKI when the KDIGO and pRIFLE guidelines were used respectively. One percent of the participants had Stage 2 and 1% also had Stage 3 AKI per KDIGO; 4% had Stage 1 (risk) and 1% had Stage 2 (injury) AKI per the pRIFLE.

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