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Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl. 2020 Jan-Feb;31(1):176-181. doi: 10.4103/1319-2442.279938.

Spectrum of pediatricbiopsy-proven renal diseases: A single center experience.

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Department of Pediatric Nephrology, Children Specialized Hospital, King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.


Glomerular diseases are considered to be a significant cause of chronic kidney disease. Kidney biopsy continues to be an essential diagnostic tool. We review the renal biopsies which were done on children below the age of 14 years in the past 10 years (from January 2008 to September 2018) in a single tertiary pediatric hospital in Saudi Arabia to determine the patterns of renal disease among Saudi children as well-correlating clinical presentation with histopathological diagnosis. A total of 203 pediatric kidney biopsies were performed. The mean age was 7.3 ± 3.9 years (3 months to 14 years). There were 105 males and 98 females. The most frequent indication for renal biopsy was nephrotic syndrome in 58.9% of patients, followed by acute glomerulo- nephritis in 20.8%. Other indications included significant proteinuria, persistent microscopic hematuria, acute kidney injury of uncertain etiology, in the remaining 20% of biopsies. Clinical diagnosis was consistent with histopathological diagnosis in 92% of the cases. Minimal change disease was the most common cause of primary glomerular diseases in 37.4%, followed by focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in 20.2%. Lupus nephritis represents the most common cause of the secondary renal disease (8.4%). Complications of kidney biopsy were observed in only 16.3% of patients, of whom 9.9% had perirenal hematomas and 6.4% of the patients developed either microscopic hematuria or macroscopic hematuria.

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