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Foods. 2020 Mar 2;9(3). pii: E263. doi: 10.3390/foods9030263.

Production of Milk Phospholipid-Enriched Dairy Ingredients.

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Department of Wine, Food and Molecular Biosciences, Faculty of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Lincoln University, Lincoln 7647, Christchurch, New Zealand.
Riddet Research Institute, Palmerston North 4442, New Zealand.
Department of Food, Bioprocessing and Nutrition Sciences, Southeast Dairy Foods Research Center, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA.
Dairy Innovation Institute, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA 93407, USA.
Tianjin Key Laboratory of Food and Biotechnology, School of Biotechnology and Food Science, Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin 300134, China.


Milk phospholipids (MPLs) have been used as ingredients for food fortification, such as bakery products, yogurt, and infant formula, because of their technical and nutritional functionalities. Starting from either buttermilk or beta serum as the original source, this review assessed four typical extraction processes and estimated that the life-cycle carbon footprints (CFs) of MPLs were 87.40, 170.59, 159.07, and 101.05 kg CO2/kg MPLs for membrane separation process, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) by CO2 and dimethyl ether (DME), SFE by DME, and organic solvent extraction, respectively. Regardless of the MPL content of the final products, membrane separation remains the most efficient way to concentrate MPLs, yielding an 11.1-20.0% dry matter purity. Both SFE and solvent extraction processes are effective at purifying MPLs to relatively higher purity (76.8-88.0% w/w).


buttermilk; carbon footprint; life-cycle assessment; membrane separation; milk phospholipids; supercritical fluid extraction

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