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Molecules. 2020 Feb 27;25(5). pii: E1064. doi: 10.3390/molecules25051064.

Filled Carbon Nanotubes as Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

Author information

1
Kirchhoff Institute for Physics, Heidelberg University, INF 227, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
2
Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research (IFW) Dresden, 01069 Dresden, Germany.
3
Department of Applied Chemistry, Palestine Polytechnic University, Hebron P.O. Box 198, Palestine.
4
Institute for Physics of Solids, Technical University of Dresden, 01062 Dresden, Germany.
5
Nanomaterials Physicochemistry Department, Faculty of Chemical Technology and Engineering, West Pomeranian University of Technology, 71-065 Szczecin, Poland.
6
Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Pune 411 008, India.
7
Centre for Advanced Materials (CAM), Heidelberg University, INF 225, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.

Abstract

Downsizing well-established materials to the nanoscale is a key route to novel functionalities, in particular if different functionalities are merged in hybrid nanomaterials. Hybrid carbon-based hierarchical nanostructures are particularly promising for electrochemical energy storage since they combine benefits of nanosize effects, enhanced electrical conductivity and integrity of bulk materials. We show that endohedral multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNT) encapsulating high-capacity (here: conversion and alloying) electrode materials have a high potential for use in anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIB). There are two essential characteristics of filled CNT relevant for application in electrochemical energy storage: (1) rigid hollow cavities of the CNT provide upper limits for nanoparticles in their inner cavities which are both separated from the fillings of other CNT and protected against degradation. In particular, the CNT shells resist strong volume changes of encapsulates in response to electrochemical cycling, which in conventional conversion and alloying materials hinders application in energy storage devices. (2) Carbon mantles ensure electrical contact to the active material as they are unaffected by potential cracks of the encapsulate and form a stable conductive network in the electrode compound. Our studies confirm that encapsulates are electrochemically active and can achieve full theoretical reversible capacity. The results imply that encapsulating nanostructures inside CNT can provide a route to new high-performance nanocomposite anode materials for LIB.

KEYWORDS:

anode material; filled carbon nanotubes; hybrid nanomaterials; lithium-ion batteries

PMID:
32120977
DOI:
10.3390/molecules25051064
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