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Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2020 Feb;63(Supplement):S117-S122. doi: 10.4103/IJPM.IJPM_731_18.

Tumor budding in invasive breast cancer - An indispensable budding touchstone.

Author information

Department of Pathology, PES Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Kuppam, Chittoor, Andhra Pradesh, India.
Consultant Pathologist, Ashwini Diagnostics, Pogathota, Nellore, Andhra Pradesh, India.
Consultant Pathologist, Lotus Hospitals, Srirampuram, Vishakapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India.
Consultant Pathologist, Medall Diagnostics, Medall Health Care Pvt Ltd, Nellore, Andhra Pradesh, India.
Department of Pathology, Karwar Institute of Medical Sciences, Karwar, Karnataka, India.



Tumor budding denotes a phenomenon in which the tumor cells, singly or in small aggregates, become detached from the neoplastic glands at the invasive front of adenocarcinoma. Tumors with budding cells have a significantly more aggressive clinical course. Significance of tumor budding has mainly been examined in the field of colorectal cancer.


To document the number tumor buds at the invasive front of invasive breast cancer. To correlate the number of tumor buds with other histopathological parameters, and available clinical details.

Setting and Study Design:

Analytical study at a rural tertiary care referral institute.

Materials and Methods:

It was a retrospective study of invasive breast cancer cases from January 2012 to April 2015. Tumor buds were counted in H and E stained sections in 10 High Power Fields (HPFs). Association of tumor budding with histological parameters and available clinical details were analyzed statistically.

Statistical Analysis Used:

Frequencies, Chi-Square Test and Crosstabs were used for calculation.


50 cases of invasive breast carcinoma were analyzed. Invasive ductal carcinoma constituted predominant histological type (92%). Low tumor budding (tumor buds ≤20/10HPFs) constituted 20 cases. High tumor budding (tumor buds >20/10HPFs) constituted 30 cases. Association of high tumor budding with lympho-vascular invasion, lymph node metastasis, primary tumor staging, regional lymph node staging, necrosis and Monckeberg medial sclerosis was statistically significant.


Tumor budding may be incorporated as a new parameter in reporting protocols. Tumor budding serves as an indispensable touchstone in evaluating cases of invasive breast cancer.


Adenocarcinoma; lymph node; metastasis; necrosis

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