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Cogn Neuropsychiatry. 2020 May;25(3):215-230. doi: 10.1080/13546805.2020.1734552. Epub 2020 Feb 26.

Self-Monitoring for speech and its links to age, cognitive effort, schizotypal trait expression and impulsivity during adolescence.

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Research Department of Clinical, Educational and Health Psychology, University College London, London, UK.
Developmental Clinical Psychology Unit, Faculty of Psychology, University of Geneva, Switzerland Geneva, Switzerland.
Department of Psychiatry, Developmental Imaging and Psychopathology Lab, Office Medico-Pédagogique, University of Geneva 1 rue David-Dufour Geneva, Switzerland.


Introduction: Disruptions in self-monitoring processes represent key cognitive factors associated with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. In the current study, we assessed the effects of age and cognitive effort on self-monitoring for speech in adolescence, as well as its associations with personality dimensions pertaining to schizotypy and impulsivity.Methods: 121 community adolescents undertook a self-monitoring task that assesses the capacity to discriminate between self-generated overt and silent speech, for items requiring different levels of cognitive effort. Self-report measures were used to assess trait dimensions of schizotypy and impulsivity.Results: Cognitive effort, but not age, contributed to the overall rate of self-monitoring errors. Contrary to clinical psychosis and high risk samples, increased cognitive effort in healthy adolescents led to more internalising than externalising self-monitoring errors. Higher scores on the interpersonal dimension of schizotypy were associated with increases in the total rate of self-monitoring errors. No associations were found between positive schizotypy and externalising self-monitoring misattributions. Finally, trait impulsivity dimensions were not associated with self-monitoring performance.Conclusions: The present findings suggest that self-monitoring confusions may be linked to trait-risk for psychosis in adolescence. Future studies can prospectively assess whether the association between negative schizotypal traits and self-monitoring represents a distal marker of psychosis vulnerability.


Source monitoring; personality; psychosis risk; schizophrenia; schizotypy

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