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Chin J Physiol. 2020 Jan-Feb;63(1):21-26. doi: 10.4103/CJP.CJP_84_19.

Acute and chronic effects of aerobic exercise on serum irisin, adropin, and cholesterol levels in the winter season: Indoor training versus outdoor training.

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Department of Faculty of Sport Sciences, Erzurum Technical University, Erzurum, Turkey.
Department of Faculty of Sport Sciences, Graduate School of Health Sciences, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey.
Department of Biochemistry, Erzurum Regional Education and Research Hospital, Erzurum, Turkey.
Department of Medical Biochemistry, School of Medicine, University of Health Sciences, Istanbul, Turkey.


The aim of this study is to investigate the acute and chronic effects of aerobic training performed indoors and outdoors on irisin, adropin, and cholesterol levels in winter. Thirty-two healthy males participated in this study. Participants were divided into two groups: outdoor group (n = 16) and indoor group (n = 16). They then performed 40-min aerobic running exercises 4 days/week for 18 weeks. The outdoor group trained at -5°C-5°C environmental temperature, while the indoor group trained at 21°C-25°C. Blood samples were collected before and after the 18-week training period and immediately after the first training. The results showed that single aerobic exercise induced minimal increase in serum irisin concentrations in both groups. In addition, irisin levels did not change in the outdoor group but significantly decreased in the indoor group after the 18-week training period. Aerobic exercise had no acute or chronic effects on serum adropin levels in the indoor group. However, the aerobic training caused a decrease in adropin levels chronically, but there was no acute effect after single aerobic exercise in the outdoor group. Furthermore, there was no acute effect on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and total cholesterol after single aerobic exercise in both groups. However, after the 18-week training period, there was a significant increase in HDL-C levels in both groups. Moreover, the increase in HDL-C in the outdoor group was higher than in the indoor group. Thus, this study provides evidence for the beneficial chronic effects of aerobic exercise and cold on HDL-C levels as well as the beneficial acute effects on irisin concentrations.


Cold exposure; cytokine; high-density lipoprotein; lipid profile; low-density lipoprotein; myokine

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