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Occup Environ Med. 2020 Mar;77(3):151-159. doi: 10.1136/oemed-2019-106012.

Global and regional burden of cancer in 2016 arising from occupational exposure to selected carcinogens: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016.

Collaborators (198)

Driscoll T, Rushton L, Steenland K, Hutchings S, Straif K, Abate D, Abdel-Rahman O, Acharya D, Afarideh M, Alahdab F, Al-Aly Z, Anjomshoa M, Aremu O, Artaman A, Ataro Z, Ayala Quintanilla BP, Badawi A, Behzadifar M, Behzadifar M, Beuran M, Bhattacharyya K, Bijani A, Bjørge T, Butt ZA, Carrero JJ, Carvalho F, Castañeda-Orjuela CA, Cerin E, Chaturvedi P, Chimed-Ochir O, Crider R, Crowe CS, Dandona L, Dandona R, Dang AK, Daryani A, Desalegn BB, Dharmaratne SD, Djalalinia S, Effiong A, El-Khatib Z, Esteghamati A, Fareed M, Fernandes E, Filip I, Fischer F, Fukumoto T, Gallus S, Gebremichael TG, Gezae KE, Grada A, Sena Guimaraes AL, Gupta R, Hafezi-Nejad N, Haj-Mirzaian A, Haj-Mirzaian A, Hamadeh RR, Hamidi S, Hassankhani H, Hay SI, Hegazy MI, Henok A, Hoang CL, Hole MK, Dean Hosgood H, Hosseini M, Hostiuc M, Hostiuc S, Naghibi Irvani SS, Shariful Islam SM, Jakovljevic M, Jha RP, Jürisson M, Kahsay A, Karimi N, Kasaeian A, Kassa ZY, Khader YS, Khafaie MA, Khan EA, Khosravi MH, Khubchandani J, Kiadaliri AA, Kim YJ, Kogevinas M, Koh D, Kosen S, Koyanagi A, Anil Kumar G, Lad DP, Lal DK, Lami FH, Latifi A, Leigh J, Linn S, Majdan M, Malekzadeh R, Malta DC, Mansournia MA, Massenburg BB, Melese A, Melku M, Memish ZA, Mendoza W, Mengistu G, Meretoja TJ, Mestrovic T, Miazgowski B, Miazgowski T, Mirrakhimov EM, Moazen B, Mohammed S, Mohebi F, Mokdad AH, Moodley Y, Moosazadeh M, Moradi G, Morawska L, Morrison SD, Mousavi SM, Mustafa G, Negoi I, Negoi RI, Nguyen CT, Nguyen TH, Anggraini Ningrum DN, Nixon MR, Ofori-Asenso R, Ogbo FA, Olagunju AT, Olusanya BO, Ortega-Altamirano DDV, Mahesh PA, Park EK, Pereira DM, Prakash S, Qorbani M, Radfar A, Rafay A, Rafiei A, Rahim F, Rahimi-Movaghar V, Rajati F, Reiner RC, Renzaho AMN, Rezaei S, Roever L, Saadat M, Saddik B, Safari S, Safiri S, Sahebkar A, Sahraian MA, Salimzadeh H, Samy AM, Sanabria J, Sarmiento-Suárez R, Sathian B, Schwebel DC, Sepanlou SG, Serdar B, Shaikh MA, Sharma R, She J, Shigematsu M, Shirkoohi R, Si S, Sinha DN, Soofi M, Stanaway JD, Stokes MA, Tabarés-Seisdedos R, Tabuchi T, Takahashi K, Tefera YM, Temsah MH, Tovani-Palone MR, Tran BX, Tran KB, Ullah I, Valdez PR, Vasankari TJ, Violante FS, Vlassov V, Vu GT, Waheed Y, Wang YP, Yeshaneh A, Yirsaw BD, Yisma E, Yonemoto N, Yousefifard M, Yu C, Zadnik V, Zamani M, Zandian H, Zodpey S, Lim SS.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

This study provides a detailed analysis of the global and regional burden of cancer due to occupational carcinogens from the Global Burden of Disease 2016 study.

METHODS:

The burden of cancer due to 14 International Agency for Research on Cancer Group 1 occupational carcinogens was estimated using the population attributable fraction, based on past population exposure prevalence and relative risks from the literature. The results were used to calculate attributable deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs).

RESULTS:

There were an estimated 349 000 (95% Uncertainty Interval 269 000 to 427 000) deaths and 7.2 (5.8 to 8.6) million DALYs in 2016 due to exposure to the included occupational carcinogens-3.9% (3.2% to 4.6%) of all cancer deaths and 3.4% (2.7% to 4.0%) of all cancer DALYs; 79% of deaths were of males and 88% were of people aged 55 -79 years. Lung cancer accounted for 86% of the deaths, mesothelioma for 7.9% and laryngeal cancer for 2.1%. Asbestos was responsible for the largest number of deaths due to occupational carcinogens (63%); other important risk factors were secondhand smoke (14%), silica (14%) and diesel engine exhaust (5%). The highest mortality rates were in high-income regions, largely due to asbestos-related cancers, whereas in other regions cancer deaths from secondhand smoke, silica and diesel engine exhaust were more prominent. From 1990 to 2016, there was a decrease in the rate for deaths (-10%) and DALYs (-15%) due to exposure to occupational carcinogens.

CONCLUSIONS:

Work-related carcinogens are responsible for considerable disease burden worldwide. The results provide guidance for prevention and control initiatives.

KEYWORDS:

asbestos; diesel engine exhaust; epidemiology; occupational exposure; silica

Conflict of interest statement

Competing interests: RC reports board membership on the Board of Directors, Food Ingredient and Research, Hawaii, outside the submitted work. TJM reports grants from Cancer Foundation Finland sr., during the conduct of the study.

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