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Occup Environ Med. 2020 Mar;77(3):133-141. doi: 10.1136/oemed-2019-106008.

Global and regional burden of disease and injury in 2016 arising from occupational exposures: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016.

Collaborators (222)

Driscoll T, Rushton L, Hutchings SJ, Straif K, Steenland K, Abate D, Abbafati C, Acharya D, Adebayo OM, Afshari M, Akinyemiju T, Alahdab F, Anjomshoa M, Antonio CAT, Aremu O, Ataro Z, AyalaQuintanilla BP, MattarBanoub JA, Barker-Collo SL, Bärnighausen TW, Barrero LH, Bedi N, Behzadifar M, Behzadifar M, Benavides FG, Beuran M, Bhattacharyya K, Bijani A, Cárdenas R, Carrero JJ, Carvalho F, Castañeda-Orjuela CA, Cerin E, Cooper C, Dandona L, Dandona R, Dang AK, Daryani A, Desalegn BB, Dharmaratne SD, Dubljanin E, El-Khatib Z, Eskandarieh S, Fareed M, Faro A, Fereshtehnejad SM, Fernandes E, Filip I, Fischer F, Fukumoto T, Gallus S, Gebremichael TG, Gezae KE, Gill TK, GarciaGoulart BN, Grada A, Guo Y, Gupta R, Haj-Mirzaian A, Haj-Mirzaian A, Hamadeh RR, Hamidi S, Hamzeh B, Hassankhani H, Hawkins DM, Hay SI, Hegazy MI, Henok A, Hoang CL, Hole MK, Rad EH, Hossain N, Hosseini M, Hostiuc S, Hu G, Stephen-Ilesanmi O, Naghibi-Irvani SS, Shariful-Islam SM, Jakovljevic M, Jha RP, Jonas JB, Shushtari ZJ, Jozwiak JJ, Jürisson M, Kahsay A, Karami M, Karimi N, Kasaeian A, Kawakami N, Khader YS, Khan EA, Khubchandani J, Kim YJ, Kisa A, Kosen S, Koul PA, Koyanagi A, Defo BK, Anil Kumar G, Kumar M, Lami FH, Latifi A, Leigh J, Levi M, Li S, Linn S, F-Lopez JC, Lunevicius R, Mahotra NB, Majdan M, Malekzadeh R, Mansournia MA, Massenburg BB, Mehta V, Melese A, Memish ZA, Mendoza W, Mengistu G, Meretoja A, Meretoja TJ, Mestrovic T, Miazgowski B, Miazgowski T, Miller TR, Mini GK, Mirrakhimov EM, Moazen B, Gholi-Mezerji NM, Mohammed S, Mohebi F, Mokdad AH, Molokhia M, Monasta L, Moodley Y, Moosazadeh M, Moradi G, Moradi-Lakeh M, Morawska L, Morrison SD, Mousavi SM, Mustafa G, Najafi F, Nangia V, Negoi I, Negoi RI, Neupane S, Nguyen CT, Nguyen TH, Nixon MR, Ofori-Asenso R, Ogbo FA, Olagunju AT, Olusanya BO, Otstavnov SS, Mahesh PA, Panda-Jonas S, Park EK, Prakash S, Qorbani M, Radfar A, Rafay A, Rahim F, Reiner RC, Renzaho AMN, Roever L, Ronfani L, Saddik B, Safari-Faramani R, Safi S, Safiri S, Salamati P, Salimi Y, Samy AM, Schwebel DC, Sepanlou SG, Serdar B, Shaikh MA, Shams-Beyranvand M, Sharif-Alhoseini M, She J, Shigematsu M, Shiri R, Shirkoohi R, Si S, Sinha DN, Stanaway JD, Soofi M, Stokes MA, Sufiyan MB, Tabarés-Seisdedos R, Takahashi K, Tassew SG, Tehrani-Banihashemi A, Temsah MH, Tran BX, Tran KB, Car LT, Ullah I, Valdez PR, Vasankari TJ, Venketasubramanian N, Violante FS, Vladimirov SK, Vlassov V, Vu GT, Wagner GR, Waheed Y, Wang YP, Werdecker A, Winkler AS, Yimer EM, Yip P, Yirsaw BD, Yisma E, Yonemoto N, Yousefifard M, Zaman SB, Zamani M, Zandian H, Zhang Y, Zodpey S, Lim SS.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

This study provides an overview of the influence of occupational risk factors on the global burden of disease as estimated by the occupational component of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2016 study.

METHODS:

The GBD 2016 study estimated the burden in terms of deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) arising from the effects of occupational risk factors (carcinogens; asthmagens; particulate matter, gases and fumes (PMGF); secondhand smoke (SHS); noise; ergonomic risk factors for low back pain; risk factors for injury). A population attributable fraction (PAF) approach was used for most risk factors.

RESULTS:

In 2016, globally, an estimated 1.53 (95% uncertainty interval 1.39-1.68) million deaths and 76.1 (66.3-86.3) million DALYs were attributable to the included occupational risk factors, accounting for 2.8% of deaths and 3.2% of DALYs from all causes. Most deaths were attributable to PMGF, carcinogens (particularly asbestos), injury risk factors and SHS. Most DALYs were attributable to injury risk factors and ergonomic exposures. Men and persons 55 years or older were most affected. PAFs ranged from 26.8% for low back pain from ergonomic risk factors and 19.6% for hearing loss from noise to 3.4% for carcinogens. DALYs per capita were highest in Oceania, Southeast Asia and Central sub-Saharan Africa. On a per capita basis, between 1990 and 2016 there was an overall decrease of about 31% in deaths and 25% in DALYs.

CONCLUSIONS:

Occupational exposures continue to cause an important health burden worldwide, justifying the need for ongoing prevention and control initiatives.

KEYWORDS:

cancer; ergonomic; noise; respiratory tract diseases; workplace

Conflict of interest statement

Competing interests: CATA reports personal fees from Johnson & Johnson (Philippines), outside the submitted work. CC reports personal fees from Amgen, Danone, Eli Lilly, GSK, Kyowa Kirin, Medtronic, Merck, Nestle, Novartis, Pfizer, Roche, Servier, Shire, Takeda and UCB, outside the submitted work. BNGG reports grants from Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq), during the conduct of the study. NK reports personal fees from Junpukai Foundation and Softbank; and grants from Fujitsu, Fujitsu Software Technologies and Softbank, outside the submitted work. JK reports grants from Merck Pharmaceuticals, outside the submitted work. TJM reports grants from Cancer Foundation Finland sr, during the conduct of the study.

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