Send to

Choose Destination
Mov Disord. 2020 Feb 13. doi: 10.1002/mds.28000. [Epub ahead of print]

Auditory Dysfunction in Parkinson's Disease.

Author information

Department of Neuroscience, Canadian Centre for Behavioural Neuroscience, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, AB, Canada.
Department of Basic Sciences in Rehabilitation, School of Rehabilitation Sciences, Iran University of Medical Science (IUMS), Tehran, Iran.


PD is a progressive and complex neurological disorder with heterogeneous symptomatology. PD is characterized by classical motor features of parkinsonism and nonmotor symptoms and involves extensive regions of the nervous system, various neurotransmitters, and protein aggregates. Extensive evidence supports auditory dysfunction as an additional nonmotor feature of PD. Studies indicate a broad range of auditory impairments in PD, from the peripheral hearing system to the auditory brainstem and cortical areas. For instance, research demonstrates a higher occurrence of hearing loss in early-onset PD and evidence of abnormal auditory evoked potentials, event-related potentials, and habituation to novel stimuli. Electrophysiological data, such as auditory P3a, also is suggested as a sensitive measure of illness duration and severity. Improvement in auditory responses following dopaminergic therapies also indicates the presence of similar neurotransmitters (i.e., glutamate and dopamine) in the auditory system and basal ganglia. Nonetheless, hearing impairments in PD have received little attention in clinical practice so far. This review summarizes evidence of peripheral and central auditory impairments in PD and provides conclusions and directions for future empirical and clinical research.


Parkinson's disease; auditory P3a; auditory brainstem response; dopamine; glutamate; habituation; hearing loss; hypophonia; mismatch negativity; nonmotor symptoms


Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Wiley
Loading ...
Support Center