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Mycopathologia. 2020 Feb 12. doi: 10.1007/s11046-020-00425-0. [Epub ahead of print]

The threat of emerging and re-emerging pathogenic Sporothrix species.

Author information

1
Laboratory of Emerging Fungal Pathogens, Cell Biology Division, Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, Paulista School of Medicine, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, 04023-062, Brazil. amrodrigues.amr@gmail.com.
2
Laboratory of Emerging Fungal Pathogens, Cell Biology Division, Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, Paulista School of Medicine, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, 04023-062, Brazil.
3
Laboratory of Clinical Research on Dermatozoonoses in Domestic Animals, Evandro Chagas National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (Fiocruz), Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.
4
Dermatology Department, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FCM-UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

Abstract

Sporotrichosis is a neglected subcutaneous mycosis of humans and animals acquired by traumatic inoculation of soil and plant material (classical route) contaminated with infectious propagules of the pathogen or being bitten/scratched by infected cats (alternative route). Within a genus composed of 53 species displaying an essentially environmental core, there are only a few members which have considerable impacts on human or animal health. Infections are typically caused by S. brasiliensis, S. schenckii or S. globosa. Rare mammal pathogens include members of the S. pallida and S. stenocereus complexes. To illustrate the tremendous impact of emerging zoonotic sporotrichosis on public health, we discuss the main features of the expanding epidemics driven by S. brasiliensis in cats and humans. The cat entry in the transmission chain of sporotrichosis, causing epizooties (cat-cat) or zoonosis (cat-human), has contributed to the definition of new paradigms in Sporothrix transmission, reaching epidemic levels, making the disease a serious public health problem. Indeed, S. brasiliensis infection in humans and animals is likely to become even more important in the future, with projections of its expansion in biogeographic domains and host range, as well as greater virulence in mammals. Therefore, lessons from a long-standing outbreak in the state of Rio de Janeiro about the source and distribution of the etiological agents among outbreak areas can be used to create better control and prevention plans and increase awareness of sporotrichosis as a serious emerging zoonotic disease.

KEYWORDS:

Control and prevention; Emerging zoonoses; Neglected tropical diseases; Pathogenicity; Preparedness and biodefense; Sporothrix; Sporothrix brasiliensis; Sporotrichosis; Virulence

PMID:
32052359
DOI:
10.1007/s11046-020-00425-0

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