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Viruses. 2020 Feb 10;12(2). pii: E196. doi: 10.3390/v12020196.

Changes in the Transmission Dynamic of Chikungunya Virus in Southeastern Senegal.

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Institut Pasteur Dakar, Arbovirus and viral Hemorrhagic Fevers Unit, 12500 Dakar, Senegal.
Institut Santé et développement (ISED), Université Cheikh Anta Diop, 12500 Dakar, Senegal.
Inserm U1219 University of Bordeaux, 33063 Bordeaux, France.
Mathematical Modelling of Infectious Diseases Unit, Institut Pasteur, 75015 Paris, France.
Centre National de Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), URA3012, Paris, France.
Center of Bioinformatics, Biostatistics and Integrative Biology, Institut Pasteur, 75015 Paris, France.
Faculty of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London WC1E7HT, UK.
Institut Pasteur Dakar, Medical entomology Unit, 12500 Dakar, Senegal.
Institute for Human Infections and Immunity, World Reference Center for Emerging Viruses and Arboviruses and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555, USA.


In Senegal, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is maintained in a sylvatic cycle and causes sporadic cases or small outbreaks in rural areas. However, little is known about the influence of the environment on its transmission. To address the question, 120 villages were randomly selected in the Kedougou region of southeastern Senegal. In each selected village, 10 persons by randomly selected household were sampled and tested for specific anti-CHIKV IgG antibodies by ELISA. We investigated the association of CHIKV seroprevalence with environmental variables using logistic regression analysis and the spatial correlation of village seroprevalence based on semivariogram analysis. Fifty-four percent (51%-57%) of individuals sampled during the survey tested positive for CHIKV-specific IgG. CHIKV seroprevalence was significantly higher in populations living close to forested areas (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.90 (1.42-2.57)), and was negatively associated with population density (OR = 0.76 (0.69-0.84)). In contrast, in gold mining sites where population density was >400 people per km2, seroprevalence peaked significantly among adults (46% (27%-67%)) compared to all other individuals (20% (12%-31%)). However, traditional gold mining activities significantly modify the transmission dynamic of CHIKV, leading to a potential increase of the risk of human exposition in the region.


Chikungunya; Senegal; environmental risk; gold mining; spatial autocorrelation

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