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Transplant Proc. 2020 Feb 5. pii: S0041-1345(19)31288-6. doi: 10.1016/j.transproceed.2019.11.033. [Epub ahead of print]

Successful Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation in Nuclear Factor-Kappa B Essential Modulator Deficiency Syndrome After Treosulfan-Based Conditioning: A Case Report.

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Department of Paediatric Bone Marrow Transplantation, Oncology and Hematology, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland.
Immunology Department, The Children's Memorial Health Institute, Warsaw, Poland.
Department of Pediatrics, Oncology, and Hematology, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland.
Department of Paediatric Bone Marrow Transplantation, Oncology and Hematology, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland. Electronic address:



X-linked EDA-ID1 (ectodermal dysplasia, anhidrotic, with immunodeficiency 1, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man [OMIM] 300291), or NEMO (nuclear factor kappa B essential modulator) deficiency syndrome, is caused by mutations in the IKBKG/NEMO gene. We report the case of a boy with EDA-ID1 who underwent allogeneic stem cell transplantation.


In early infancy, the patient developed an atypical, severe, initial manifestation resembling Omenn syndrome with infections, and he underwent allogeneic stem cell transplantation from an unrelated 9 of 10 HLA matched donor with a mismatch in the DQB1 allele after conditioning with treosulfan, fludarabine, thiotepa, and antithymocyte globulin (Grafalon). The post-transplant period was complicated by cytomegalovirus replication and mild, grade 2 graft vs host disease. Because of NEMO deficiency syndrome-associated enteropathy and continuous weight loss, parenteral nutrition was started and the patient was fed an elemental formula and a gluten-free diet. Over a period of 3 years, the patient had 7 incidents of blood stream infections caused by Staphylococci or gut-derived Gram-negative flora, with 1 incident of septic shock caused by Escherichia coli. The blood stream infection stopped after gastrointestinal tract decontamination was done once per month for 7-day courses alternately with rifaximin, vancomycin, and gentamicin sulfate.


Patients with NEMO deficiency syndrome require very complex, multidisciplinary care, and immunodeficiency correction can only be observed as one of the critical points in patient care. Developmental problems, enteropathy with the need for intravenous hyperalimentation, and specific interventions for other clinical manifestations of multifaceted syndrome are needed for proper care.

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