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Niger J Clin Pract. 2020 Feb;23(2):138-146. doi: 10.4103/njcp.njcp_344_17.

Prevalence of clinically significant antibodies in patients undergoing elective surgery in a Nigerian teaching hospital: A case for the type and screen method.

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Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion, Federal Medical Centre, Yenogoa, Nigeria.
Department of Haematology and Immunology, College of Health Sciences, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa State, Nigeria.
Department of Haematology, Immunology and Blood Transfusion, College of Health Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.



Provision of safe and adequate blood is challenging in our environment due to paucity of voluntary donors as well as inappropriate blood ordering and utilization. The type and screen (TS) method (typing of blood group and screening for antibodies) reduces the demand for blood reservation in hospital blood banks.


The aim of this study is to determine the safety (detection clinically significant antibodies) and cost effectiveness of the TS method compared to the conventional antiglobulin crossmatch (ACM).

Settings and Design and Methods:

This was a cross-sectional prospective study carried out at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH). 124 participants booked for elective surgeries with no history of blood transfusion or pregnancy were investigated. ACM was performed on all participants' serum against 159 donor red cells. TS was also performed blindly on the same participants' sera, antibody screening was done with three-screen-cells using the gel method. An 11-cell panel was used for antibody identification. Blood utilization was calculated using the crossmatch: transfusion ratio (CTR), probability of transfusion (%T) and transfusion index (TI).


Out of the 159 units crossmatched for 124 study participants, only 19 were actually transfused (88.1% not utilized). The prevalence of compatible ACM was 100%, however the TS detected one antibody (0.81%) in a male participant identified as anti-M. The overall CTR, %T and TI were 8.4, 15.6% and 0.16 respectively, with N384,750 ($963.1) wastage in terms of cost. The TS method would have saved N266,000{$665.9} (N1900{4.78} per un-transfused patient).


There was improper utilization of blood in elective surgeries. The TS method identified an antibody not detected by ACM. This would have saved N266,000 {$665.9}, and reduced the demand for blood reservation in the bank. Although The TS method was found not to be significantly different in outcome compared to the ACM, it was found to be cost effective.


Antoglobiulin crossmatch; clinically significant antibodies; cost-effectiveness; elective surgeries; type and screen

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