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J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2020 Feb 6:1932296819897976. doi: 10.1177/1932296819897976. [Epub ahead of print]

The Development and Psychometric Validation of the Diabetes Impact and Device Satisfaction Scale for Individuals with Type 1 Diabetes.

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Tandem Diabetes Care, San Diego, CA, USA.
dQ&A, San Francisco, CA, USA.



With the rapid development of new insulin delivery technology, measuring patient experience has become especially pertinent. The current study reports on item development, psychometric validation, and intended use of the newly developed Diabetes Impact and Device Satisfaction (DIDS) Scale.


The DIDS Scale was informed by a comprehensive literature review, and field tested as part of two focus groups. The finalized measure was used at baseline and 6 months post-assessment with a large US cohort. Exploratory factor analyses (EFAs) were conducted to determine and confirm factor structure and item selection. Internal reliability, test-retest reliability, and convergent/divergent validity of the emerged factors were tested with demographics, diabetes-specific information, and diabetes behavioral and satisfaction measures.


In all, 778 participants with type 1 diabetes (66% female, mean age 47.13 ± 17.76 years, 74% insulin pump users) completed surveys at both baseline and post-assessment. EFA highlighted two factors-Device Satisfaction (seven items, Cronbach's α = 0.85-0.90) and Diabetes Impact (four items, Cronbach's α = 0.71-0.75). DIDS Scale demonstrated good concurrent validity and test-retest reliability.


The DIDS Scale is a novel and a brief assessment tool with robust psychometric properties. It is recommended for use across all insulin delivery devices and is considered appropriate for use in longitudinal studies. Future studies are recommended to evaluate the performance of DIDS Scale in diverse populations with diabetes.


automated insulin delivery; device impact; diabetes technology; insulin pumps; patient-reported outcomes; psychosocial; type 1 diabetes


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