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Urol Ann. 2020 Jan-Mar;12(1):57-62. doi: 10.4103/UA.UA_13_19. Epub 2019 Nov 7.

Urolithiasis: Prevalence, risk factors, and public awareness regarding dietary and lifestyle habits in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia in 2017.

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Clinical Nutrition Department, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
Department of Surgery, Urology Section, King Khalid National Guard Hospital, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.



Urolithiasis is a public health concern, yet there are limited studies in our community. This study aimed to provide a current estimate of the prevalence of urolithiasis and to evaluate the public's awareness about dietary and lifestyle habits that impact on urolithiasis among the Jeddah population in 2017.


This is an observational cross-sectional study design where a self-administered questionnaire was distributed in two major malls in Jeddah. The total number of participants was 2173, who were Saudis and non-Saudis aged 18 years and above. The questionnaire includes five sections: demographics, general information related to urolithiasis, dietary information related to urolithiasis, lifestyle habits, and medical conditions.


The overall prevalence of urolithiasis was 11.2%, 48.8% of which had a family history with a first-degree relative. The odds of urolithiasis among males was 1.8 times higher than in females (odds ratio [OR] =1.8, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-2.4). The median age of stone disease was 33 years (25%-75%: 26-42 years). Diabetic individuals were 3.2 times more likely to have urolithiasis when compared to nondiabetic individuals (OR = 3.2, 95% CI, 2.1-4.9). Low level of awareness was observed in this cohort group with a mean score of 37.7%; 64.1% of the population were in the low awareness level, 35.3% were in the medium level, and only 0.6% participants were in the high level of awareness.


This study highlights the lack of public awareness about urolithiasis and knowledge about its causation despite the high prevalence. There is a clear need to inform and educate the public on matters relating to the known risk factors associated with urolithiasis.


Awareness; diet; kidney stones; lifestyle; urolithiasis

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