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Urol Ann. 2020 Jan-Mar;12(1):31-36. doi: 10.4103/UA.UA_18_19. Epub 2019 Nov 7.

Prospective audit of complications after ultrasonography-guided percutaneous nephrostomy for upper urinary tract obstruction using modified Clavien classification system.

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Department of Urology, Jawaharlal Institute of Medical Education and Research, Puducherry, India.



Percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN) is a commonly performed intervention in urology for various benign and malignant conditions causing upper urinary tract obstruction. We present a prospective audit of complications of ultrasonography (USG) guided PCN using modified Clavien classification system (mCCS).


The data were prospectively collected for 368 PCN performed in 344 patients from June 2015 to January 2017, for various benign and malignant diseases causing upper urinary tract obstruction. Patients were followed for 1 month, and complications arisen of PCN were noted.


PCN was successful in 356 renal units. The 12 patients in which PCN failed was due to minimal pelvicalyceal dilatation and PCN was successfully performed after 48 h by a senior urologist. 207 patients had malignant disease and 161 patients had benign condition. Most common malignant disease was carcinoma cervix. 238 were noninfected while 130 had infected renal units. 62 (16.84%) patients had Grade I (self-limiting hematuria/cot/debris/fever). 37 (10.0%) patients had Grade II (7 - transfusion and 30 - urinary tract infection). 34 (9.2%) had Grade III a (repositioning/change/reinsertion of PCN tube under local anesthesia) and 4 (1.1%) had Grade III b (repositioning under anesthesia). 8 (2.2%) Grade IV a (Sepsis), 0 Grade IV b, and 0 Grade V complications were observed.


USG-guided PCN is a safe, minimally invasive, and effective procedure for upper urinary tract diversion with a low rate of morbidity. Individual complications are within the threshold limits set by the American College of Radiology, the Society of Interventional Radiology. mCCS is well applicable and easily reproducible tool for reporting the complications of PCN.


Clavien–Dindo classification; complications; percutaneous nephrostomy; ultrasound guidance

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