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Anesth Essays Res. 2019 Oct-Dec;13(4):643-648. doi: 10.4103/aer.AER_119_19. Epub 2019 Dec 16.

Effect of Combination of Ketamine and Propofol (Ketofol) on Cerebral Oxygenation in Neurosurgical Patients: A Randomized Double-Blinded Controlled Trial.

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Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, PGIMER, Chandigarh, India.



The effects of ketofol (a combination of ketamine and propofol) on systemic hemodynamics and requirement of opioids/Propofol have already been studied and published. However, there is paucity in the literature on the effects of ketofol on cerebral oxygenation. This study aims to compare the effects of ketofol (ketamine + propofol [1:5]) with propofol on cerebral oxygenation using jugular venous oxygen saturation (SjVO2), in patients undergoing surgical clipping of intracranial aneurysms.

Materials and Methods:

A total of 40 World Federation of Neurosurgeons I and II patients were randomized into ketofol (n = 20) and propofol (n = 20) groups. Postinduction, SjVO2 catheter was inserted, and anesthesia was maintained with propofol and fentanyl in the propofol group and ketofol and fentanyl in the ketofol group. Jugular venous oxygen saturation (SjVO2) was obtained at baseline, 1 h and 2 h intraoperatively, and at 6 h after the surgery. Intraoperative hemodynamics and brain relaxation scores were also noted.


Entire SjVO2 values in both groups were within the normal limits. Higher SjVO2 values were observed in ketofol group compared to propofol at 1 and 2 h after starting of the drug and at 6 h after surgery (P < 0.05). In propofol group, a significant fall in SjVO2 was recorded at 2 h after beginning the drug as compared to the baseline (P = 0.001). More than 20% fall in mean arterial pressure (MAP) compared to baseline MAP was noted in 75% of patients in propofol group and 15% of patients in ketofol group (P = 0.002). In propofol group, 55% of patients required rescue drug phenylephrine to treat hypotension, whereas only 15% of patients required it in ketofol group (P = 0.02). Fentanyl requirement in ketofol group was less as compared to the propofol group (P = 0.022). Brain relaxation scores were comparable in both the study groups (P = 0.887).


Maintenance of anesthesia with ketofol provides better cerebral oxygenation and hemodynamic stability compared to propofol in neurosurgical patients.


Brain relaxation; cerebral oxygenation; hemodynamics; ketofol

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