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PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2020 Jan 31;14(1):e0007967. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0007967. eCollection 2020 Jan.

High cholera vaccination coverage following emergency campaign in Haiti: Results from a cluster survey in three rural Communes in the South Department, 2017.

Author information

1
Field Epidemiology Training Programme, Public Health England, London, United Kingdom.
2
Epicentre, Paris, France.
3
Operational Centre Brussels, Médecins Sans Frontières, Brussels, Belgium.
4
Ministère de la Santé Publique et de la Population, Port-au-Prince, Haiti.

Abstract

Oral cholera vaccine (OCV) has increasingly been used as an outbreak control measure, but vaccine shortages limit its application. A two-dose OCV campaign targeting residents aged over 1 year was launched in three rural Communes of Southern Haiti during an outbreak following Hurricane Matthew in October 2016. Door-to-door and fixed-site strategies were employed and mobile teams delivered vaccines to hard-to-reach communities. This was the first campaign to use the recently pre-qualified OCV, Euvichol. The study objective was to estimate post-campaign vaccination coverage in order to evaluate the campaign and guide future outbreak control strategies. We conducted a cluster survey with sampling based on random GPS points. We identified clusters of five households and included all members eligible for vaccination. Local residents collected data through face-to-face interviews. Coverage was estimated, accounting for the clustered sampling, and 95% confidence intervals calculated. 435 clusters, 2,100 households and 9,086 people were included (99% response rate). Across the three communes respectively, coverage by recall was: 80.7% (95% CI:76.8-84.1), 82.6% (78.1-86.4), and 82.3% (79.0-85.2) for two doses and 94.2% (90.8-96.4), 91.8% (87-94.9), and 93.8% (90.8-95.9) for at least one dose. Coverage varied by less than 9% across age groups and was similar among males and females. Participants obtained vaccines from door-to-door vaccinators (53%) and fixed sites (47%). Most participants heard about the campaign through community 'criers' (58%). Despite hard-to-reach communities, high coverage was achieved in all areas through combining different vaccine delivery strategies and extensive community mobilisation. Emergency OCV campaigns are a viable option for outbreak control and where possible multiple strategies should be used in combination. Euvichol will help alleviate the OCV shortage but effectiveness studies in outbreaks should be done.

PMID:
32004316
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pntd.0007967
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Conflict of interest statement

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

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