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Niger Postgrad Med J. 2020 Jan-Mar;27(1):49-53. doi: 10.4103/npmj.npmj_146_19.

Lower urinary tract symptoms in patients with advanced prostate cancer: What are the outcomes of androgen deprivation therapy?

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Department of Surgery, Division of Urology, Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria.



Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is accepted as the first-line treatment of advanced prostate cancer. This study sets out to determine the outcomes of ADT in reducing lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in patients with advanced prostate cancer and also to determine the quality of life (QoL) of the patients.

Patients and Methods:

This was a prospective study carried out at Jos University Teaching Hospital. All consecutive patients who had LUTS due to advanced prostate cancer were recruited into the study. All patients completed the international prostate symptom score (IPSS) questionnaire, including QoL assessment. Post-void residual (PVR) urine, maximum flow rate (Qmax), prostate specific antigen and total prostate volume (TPV) were assessed. The parameters before and at 12 months were compared.


Data from 65 patients were analysed. The mean age of the patients was 68.5 ± 8.67 years with an age range of 46-85 years. Four (6.2%) had mild LUTS before AD, and their symptoms remained mild at 12 months of ADT. Twenty-two (33.9%) patients had moderate urinary symptoms. Of this, 10 (18.5%) patients had symptomatic improvement at 12 months of ADT. Of 39 (60%) patients who presented with severe LUTS, 21 (32.3%) had improvement at 12 months of ADT. Before ADT and at 12 months of ADT, the mean IPSS score, mean TPV, Qmax, PVR and mean QoL score were 23 ± 8.8 and 15 ± 8.8 (P < 0.0001); 79.7 ± 51.4 and 73.4 ± 34.3 (P = 0.212); 8.0 ± 4.7 and 11.2 ± 4.4 (<0.001); 209.8 ± 127.8 and 163 ± 111.4 (<0.001); 4.23 ± 1.2 and 3.24 ± 1.2 (P < 0.001), respectively. Of the 39 patients (60%) with severe urinary symptoms, 18 (27.7%) of patients had urethral catheterization for either acute or chronic urinary retention before ADT. At 12 months on ADT, eight patients (12.3.7%) were still on catheter due to failed attempts at trial without catheter.


ADT significantly improves urodynamic parameters, IPSS score and IPSS-related QoL. There remains a subset of patients, in whom LUTS persist with negative effects on QoL.


Advanced prostate cancer; androgen deprivation therapy; international prostate symptom score; lower urinary tract symptoms

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