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Ann Thorac Med. 2020 Jan-Mar;15(1):9-14. doi: 10.4103/atm.ATM_206_19. Epub 2020 Jan 2.

Prevalence of restless legs syndrome among pregnant women: A case-control study.

Author information

1
Department of Medicine, The University Sleep Disorders Center, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
2
Department of Family and Community Medicine, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
3
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

This cross-sectional case-control study aimed to assess the prevalence of restless legs syndrome (RLS) and its correlates and severity among Arab (Saudi) pregnant women attending antenatal care clinics.

METHODS:

We interviewed 742 consecutive pregnant women attending antenatal clinics face-to-face using the International RLS Study Group (IRLSSG) criteria. We assessed the severity of RLS using the IRLSSG severity scale for RLS (IRLS). A similar number of age-matched nonpregnant women were enrolled in a control group.

RESULTS:

Among the cases, 104 (14%) were in the first trimester, 232 (31.3%) in the second trimester, and 406 (54.7%) in the third trimester. The RLS prevalence in cases and controls was 30% and 26.5%, respectively, (P = 0.134). Among cases, severe/very severe RLS was diagnosed in 25% and mild/moderate in 75%, compared with 15% of controls having severe/very severe RLS and 85% having mild/moderate RLS (P < 0.001). Multivariate binary logistic regression analysis identified the following parameters as independent predictors of RLS: parity (odds ratio [OR] 1.113 [confidence intervals [CI] 1.012-1.223], P = 0.027), anemia (OR 1.452 [1.033-2.042], P = 0.03), diabetes mellitus (OR 1.734 [CI 1.084-2.774], P = 0.022), Vitamin D deficiency (OR 2.376 [CI 1.488-3.794],P < 0.001), and smoking (OR 3.839 [CI 1.463-10.074], P = 0.006). None of the cases had been diagnosed or treated for RLS in the antenatal clinics.

CONCLUSION:

RLS is common, but underdiagnosed, among Saudi pregnant women and nonpregnant women of childbearing age. The study revealed that RLS during pregnancy is linked to parity, anemia, diabetes mellitus, Vitamin D deficiency, and smoking.

KEYWORDS:

Anemia; Vitamin D; diabetes mellitus; movement disorders; parity; sleep

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