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Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2020 Feb;41(1):115-130. doi: 10.1055/s-0039-3401989. Epub 2020 Jan 30.

Non-Aspergillus Hyaline Molds: Emerging Causes of Sino-Pulmonary Fungal Infections and Other Invasive Mycoses.

Author information

1
Division of Infectious Diseases, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York.
2
Division of Clinical Microbiology, Mayo Clinic Alix School of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota.
3
Departments of Medicine, Pediatrics, and Microbiology & Immunology, Transplantation-Oncology Infectious Diseases Program, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, New York.

Abstract

Hyaline molds, widely distributed in nature, are an important and increasing cause of invasive fungal infections in humans, likely due to an expanding population of immunosuppressed hosts, increases in antifungal resistance, and improvements in laboratory diagnostics. Sinopulmonary disease and disseminated infection are common manifestations in neutropenic patients and transplant recipients, whereas, catheter-related and localized soft tissue infections predominate in immunocompetent hosts. These organisms are not reliably differentiated based on their morphology in tissue; rather, efforts should be made to establish a microbiologic diagnosis via culture or molecular-based methods to guide antifungal management and inform prognosis. Herein, we review the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and management of these opportunistic pathogens known to cause hyalohyphomycoses: Scedosporium spp., Lomentospora prolificans, Fusarium spp., Scopulariopsis spp., Arthrographis kalrae, Trichoderma spp., Acremonium spp., Paecilomyces variotii, Purpureocillium lilacinum, and Penicillium species.

PMID:
32000288
DOI:
10.1055/s-0039-3401989

Conflict of interest statement

Dr. Walsh has received grants for experimental and clinical antimicrobial pharmacology and therapeutics to his institution from Allergan, Amplyx, Astellas, Lediant, Medicines Company, Merck, Scynexis, and Tetraphase and has served as consultant to Amplyx, Astellas, Allergan, ContraFect, Gilead, Lediant, Medicines Company, Merck, Methylgene, Pfizer, and Scynexis.

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