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Diabetes Care. 2020 Jan 27. pii: dc191549. doi: 10.2337/dc19-1549. [Epub ahead of print]

Respective Contributions of Glycemic Variability and Mean Daily Glucose as Predictors of Hypoglycemia in Type 1 Diabetes: Are They Equivalent?

Author information

1
Institute of Clinical Research, University of Montpellier, Montpellier, France louis.monnier@inserm.fr.
2
Department of Endocrinology, Diabetology and Metabolism, Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland.
3
Department of Statistics and Epidemiology, UMR 5149, Montpellier University Hospital, Montpellier, France.
4
Institute of Clinical Research, University of Montpellier, Montpellier, France.
5
Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Nutrition, Clinical Investigation Center CIC 1411, Montpellier University Hospital, and University of Montpellier, Montpellier, France.
6
Diabetes Research Group, Cymru, Swansea University, Swansea, Wales, U.K.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To evaluate the respective contributions of short-term glycemic variability and mean daily glucose (MDG) concentration to the risk of hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetes.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:

People with type 1 diabetes (n = 100) investigated at the University Hospital of Montpellier (France) underwent continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) on two consecutive days, providing a total of 200 24-h glycemic profiles. The following parameters were computed: MDG concentration, within-day glycemic variability (coefficient of variation for glucose [%CV]), and risk of hypoglycemia (presented as the percentage of time spent below three glycemic thresholds: 3.9, 3.45, and 3.0 mmol/L).

RESULTS:

MDG was significantly higher, and %CV significantly lower (both P < 0.001), when comparing the 24-h glycemic profiles according to whether no time or a certain duration of time was spent below the thresholds. Univariate regression analyses showed that MDG and %CV were the two explanatory variables that entered the model with the outcome variable (time spent below the thresholds). The classification and regression tree procedure indicated that the predominant predictor for hypoglycemia was %CV when the threshold was 3.0 mmol/L. In people with mean glucose ≤7.8 mmol/L, the time spent below 3.0 mmol/L was shortest (P < 0.001) when %CV was below 34%.

CONCLUSIONS:

In type 1 diabetes, short-term glycemic variability relative to mean glucose (i.e., %CV) explains more hypoglycemia than does mean glucose alone when the glucose threshold is 3.0 mmol/L. Minimizing the risk of hypoglycemia requires a %CV below 34%.

PMID:
31988062
DOI:
10.2337/dc19-1549

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