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Vaccine. 2020 Jan 22. pii: S0264-410X(20)30031-1. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.01.016. [Epub ahead of print]

The history of OCV in India and barriers remaining to programmatic introduction.

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International Vaccine Institute, Policy and Economic Research Department; Public Health, Access and Vaccine Epidemiology (PAVE) Unit, Seoul, South Korea.
Indian Council of Medical Research, National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases, Kolkata, India.
Indian Council of Medical Research, Regional Medical Research Centre, Bhubaneswar, India.
International Vaccine Institute, Development & Delivery Unit, Seoul, South Korea.
Indian Council of Medical Research, National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases, Kolkata, India. Electronic address:


Cholera-endemic Eastern India has played an important role in the development of oral cholera vaccines (OCV) through conduct of pivotal trials in Kolkata which led to the registration of the first low-cost bivalent killed whole cell OCV in India in 2009, and subsequent prequalification by the World Health Organization prequalification in 2011. Odisha hosted an influential early demonstration project for use of the vaccine in a high-risk population and provided data and lessons that were crucial input in the Vaccine Investment Strategy developed by Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance in 2013. With Gavi's decision to finance an OCV stockpile, the demand for OCV surged and vaccine has been deployed with great success worldwide in areas of need in response to outbreaks and disasters, most notably in Africa. However, although India is considered one of the highest burden countries, no further use of OCV has occurred since the demonstration project in Odisha in 2011. In this paper we will summarize the important contributions of India to the development and use of OCV and discuss the possible barriers to OCV introduction as a public health tool to control cholera.


Cholera vaccine; Clinical trial; Vaccine introduction

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Conflict of interest statement

Declaration of Competing Interest The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper.

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