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Clin Cancer Res. 2020 Jan 24. pii: clincanres.3014.2019. doi: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-19-3014. [Epub ahead of print]

Efficacy and Safety of Pembrolizumab in Previously Treated Advanced Neuroendocrine Tumors: Results From the Phase 2 KEYNOTE-158 Study.

Author information

1
Gastrointestinal Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center jonathan.strosberg@moffitt.org.
2
Department of Gastroenterology, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital.
3
Department of Experimental Therapeutics, National Cancer Center Hospital East.
4
MD Anderson Cancer Center, Madrid, Spain.
5
Clinical Research Unit, Institut Claudius Regaud, IUCT-Oncopole.
6
Oncology Division, The Chaim Sheba Medical Center.
7
Helen Diller Family HDF Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, San Francisco.
8
Internal Medicine, Ohio State University.
9
Medical Oncology, City of Hope.
10
Department of Medical Oncology, Cancer Institute Hospital, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research.
11
Investigational Cancer Therapeutics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center.
12
Simon Cancer Center, Indiana University Bloomington.
13
Division of Hematology and Oncology, University of Florida Health Cancer Center-Orlando.
14
Department of Medical Oncology, Erasmus MC Cancer Institute.
15
MRL, Merck & Co., Inc.
16
Oncology, Merck Research Laboratories.
17
Endocrine oncology, Institut Gustave Roussy.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

KEYNOTE-158 (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02628067) investigated the efficacy and safety of pembrolizumab across multiple cancers. We present results from patients with previously treated advanced well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors (NETs).

PATIENTS AND METHODS:

Pembrolizumab 200 mg was administered every 3 weeks for 2 years or until progression, intolerable toxicity, or physician/patient decision. Tumor imaging was performed every 9 weeks for the first year, and then every 12 weeks. Endpoints included objective response rate (ORR) per RECIST v1.1 by independent central radiologic review (primary) and duration of response (DOR), progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and safety (secondary).

RESULTS:

One-hundred-seven patients with NETs of the lung, appendix, small intestine, colon, rectum, or pancreas were treated. Median age was 59.0 years (range, 29-80), 44.9% had ECOG performance status 1, 40.2% had received ≥3 prior therapies for advanced disease and 15.9% had PD-L1-positive tumors (combined positive score ≥1). Median follow-up was 24.2 months (range, 0.6-33.4). ORR was 3.7% (95% CI, 1.0-9.3), with 0 complete responses and 4 partial responses (3 pancreatic and 1 rectal) all in patients with PD-L1-negative tumors. Median DOR was not reached, with 1 of 4 responses ongoing after ≥21 months follow-up. Median PFS was 4.1 months (95% CI, 3.5-5.4); the 6-month PFS rate was 39.3%. Median OS was 24.2 months (95% CI, 15.8-32.5). Treatment-related adverse events (AEs) occurred in 75.7% of patients, 21.5% of whom had grade 3-5 AEs.

CONCLUSION:

Pembrolizumab monotherapy showed limited antitumor activity and manageable safety in patients with previously treated advanced well-differentiated NETs.

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