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Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2020 Jan 21. pii: S0002-9378(20)30036-3. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2020.01.028. [Epub ahead of print]

Suppression of compensatory erythropoiesis in hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn due to intrauterine transfusions.

Author information

1
Center for Clinical Transfusion Research, Sanquin Research, Leiden, the Netherlands; Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands. Electronic address: i.m.c.ree@lumc.nl.
2
Center for Clinical Transfusion Research, Sanquin Research, Leiden, the Netherlands; Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands.
3
Center for Clinical Transfusion Research, Sanquin Research, Leiden, the Netherlands; Department of Obstetrics, division of Fetal Medicine, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands.
4
Department of Biomedical Data Sciences, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands.
5
Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands.
6
Department of Obstetrics, division of Fetal Medicine, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands.
7
Center for Clinical Transfusion Research, Sanquin Research, Leiden, the Netherlands; Department of Immunohematology and Blood Transfusion, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands; Department of Immunohematology Diagnostics, Sanquin, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Infants with severe hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn often require 1 or multiple intrauterine transfusions to treat fetal anemia. Intrauterine transfusions may have an inhibiting effect on fetal and neonatal erythropoiesis.

OBJECTIVE:

To quantify the effect of 1 or multiple intrauterine transfusions on the fetal erythropoiesis by assessing the fetal reticulocyte counts in a population with severe hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn.

STUDY DESIGN:

This was an observational cohort study in infants admitted to the Leiden University Medical Center who received 1 or multiple intrauterine transfusions for hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn caused by (Rh)D or Kell antibodies and were born between January 2005 and December 2018.

RESULTS:

A total of 235 patients were included, of whom 189 were patients with D-mediated hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn and 46 with Kell-mediated hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn. Absolute fetal reticulocyte count in D-mediated hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn declined exponentially over the course of consecutive intrauterine transfusions, with a 62% decline after 1 intrauterine transfusion (95% confidence interval, 56-67). A similar exponential decline was observed in Kell-mediated hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn, with 32% (95% confidence interval, 19-45) decline after 1 intrauterine transfusion. This decline was not associated with the varying gestational age at the time of the first intrauterine transfusion or the total number of intrauterine transfusions. The number of red blood cell transfusions for postnatal anemia was greater for infants with D and Kell-mediated hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn with >2 intrauterine transfusions (median of 3 [interquartile range, 2-3] vs 2 [interquartile range, 1-3], P=.035, in D-mediated disease and median of 2 [interquartile range, 1-2] vs 1 [interquartile range, 1-1], P<.001, in Kell-mediated disease). Infants born after >2 intrauterine transfusions less often required exchange transfusion in D-mediated hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (19/89 [21%] vs 31/100 [31%], P=.039), compared with infants with 1-2 intrauterine transfusions.

CONCLUSION:

Treatment with intrauterine transfusions causes an exponential decrease in fetal reticulocyte counts in both D- and Kell-mediated hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn. Suppression of the compensatory erythropoiesis leads to prolonged postnatal anemia and an increased requirement of red blood cell transfusions after birth.

KEYWORDS:

alloimmunization; erythropoiesis; hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn; intrauterine transfusion; reticulocytes

PMID:
31978433
DOI:
10.1016/j.ajog.2020.01.028

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