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J Sci Food Agric. 2020 Apr;100(6):2327-2336. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.10285. Epub 2020 Feb 7.

Role of Bacillus species in biofilm persistence and emerging antibiofilm strategies in the dairy industry.

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Department of Food Sciences, Institute for Postharvest Technology and Food Sciences, Agricultural Research Organization (ARO), The Volcani Center, Rishon LeZion, Israel.


Biofilm-forming Bacillus species are often involved in persistent contamination and spoilage of dairy products. They therefore present a major microbiological challenge in the field of dairy food quality and safety. Due to their substantial physiological versatility, Bacillus species can survive in various parts of dairy manufacturing plants, leading to a high risk of product spoilage and potential dissemination of foodborne diseases. Furthermore, biofilm and heat-resistant spore formation make these bacteria challenging to eliminate. Thus, some strategies have been employed to remove, prevent, or delay the formation of Bacillus biofilms in the dairy industry, but with limited success. Lack of understanding of the Bacillus biofilm structure and behavior in conditions relevant to dairy-associated environments could partially account for this situation. The current paper reviews dairy-associated biofilm formation by Bacillus species, with particular attention to the role of biofilm in Bacillus species adaptation and survival in a dairy processing environment. Relevant model systems are discussed for the development of novel antimicrobial approaches to improve the quality of dairy food.


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