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Nature. 2020 Jan 22. doi: 10.1038/s41586-020-1957-x. [Epub ahead of print]

Giant virus diversity and host interactions through global metagenomics.

Author information

1
DOE Joint Genome Institute, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, USA. fschulz@lbl.gov.
2
DOE Joint Genome Institute, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, USA.
3
Groupe de recherche interuniversitaire en limnologie, Department of Biology, Concordia University, Montréal, Québec, Canada.
4
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.
5
Department of Bacteriology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USA.
6
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USA.
7
School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA.
8
DOE Joint Genome Institute, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, USA. twoyke@lbl.gov.

Abstract

Our current knowledge about nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDVs) is largely derived from viral isolates that are co-cultivated with protists and algae. Here we reconstructed 2,074 NCLDV genomes from sampling sites across the globe by building on the rapidly increasing amount of publicly available metagenome data. This led to an 11-fold increase in phylogenetic diversity and a parallel 10-fold expansion in functional diversity. Analysis of 58,023 major capsid proteins from large and giant viruses using metagenomic data revealed the global distribution patterns and cosmopolitan nature of these viruses. The discovered viral genomes encoded a wide range of proteins with putative roles in photosynthesis and diverse substrate transport processes, indicating that host reprogramming is probably a common strategy in the NCLDVs. Furthermore, inferences of horizontal gene transfer connected viral lineages to diverse eukaryotic hosts. We anticipate that the global diversity of NCLDVs that we describe here will establish giant viruses-which are associated with most major eukaryotic lineages-as important players in ecosystems across Earth's biomes.

PMID:
31968354
DOI:
10.1038/s41586-020-1957-x

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