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Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2020 Mar 24;64(4). pii: e02098-19. doi: 10.1128/AAC.02098-19. Print 2020 Mar 24.

Population Pharmacokinetic Study of the Suitability of Standard Dosing Regimens of Amikacin in Critically Ill Patients with Open-Abdomen and Negative-Pressure Wound Therapy.

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Anesthesiology and Critical Care Department, CHU Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France
Pharmacokinetics and PK/PD Group, INSERM 1034, University of Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France.
Pharmacy and Clinical Pharmacy Department, CHU Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France.
Anesthesiology and Critical Care Department, CHU Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France.
Department of Vascular and General Surgery, CHU Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France.
Pharmacology and Toxicology Department, CHU Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France.
University of Bordeaux Segalen, Bordeaux, France.


The aim was to assess the appropriateness of recommended regimens for empirical MIC coverage in critically ill patients with open-abdomen and negative-pressure therapy (OA/NPT). Over a 5-year period, every critically ill patient who received amikacin and who underwent therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) while being treated by OA/NPT was retrospectively included. A population pharmacokinetic (PK) modeling was performed considering the effect of 10 covariates (age, sex, total body weight [TBW], adapted body weight [ABW], body surface area [BSA], modified sepsis-related organ failure assessment [SOFA] score, vasopressor use, creatinine clearance [CLCR], fluid balance, and amount of fluids collected by the NPT over the sampling day) in patients who underwent continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) or did not receive CRRT. Monte Carlo simulations were employed to determine the fractional target attainment (FTA) for the PK/pharmacodynamic [PD] targets (maximum concentration of drug [C max]/MIC ratio of ≥8 and a ratio of the area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h [AUC0-24]/MIC of ≥75). Seventy critically ill patients treated by OA/NPT (contributing 179 concentration values) were included. Amikacin PK concentrations were best described by a two-compartment model with linear elimination and proportional residual error, with CLCR and ABW as significant covariates for volume of distribution (V) and CLCR for CL. The reported V) in non-CRRT and CRRT patients was 35.8 and 40.2 liters, respectively. In Monte Carlo simulations, ABW-adjusted doses between 25 and 35 mg/kg were needed to reach an FTA of >85% for various renal functions. Despite an increased V and a wide interindividual variability, desirable PK/PD targets may be achieved using an ABW-based loading dose of 25 to 30 mg/kg. When less susceptible pathogens are targeted, higher dosing regimens are probably needed in patients with augmented renal clearance (ARC). Further studies are needed to assess the effect of OA/NPT on the PK parameters of antimicrobial agents.


Monte Carlo simulation; amikacin; intensive care; negative-pressure therapy; open abdomen; pharmacokinetics


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