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South Asian J Cancer. 2020 Jan-Mar;9(1):56-58. doi: 10.4103/sajc.sajc_89_19.

Epidemiology and clinical features of retinoblastoma: A tertiary care center's experience in India.

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1
Department of Pediatric Oncology, Kidwai Memorial Institute of Oncology, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.

Abstract

Introduction:

Retinoblastoma (RB) is a prototype of heritable cancers. It is more common in the lower socioeconomic strata. Delayed presentation significantly reduces the overall outcome. We have analyzed the epidemiological and clinical data of children who were diagnosed with RB between the years 2009 and 2014.

Aim:

RB being a disease of the poor, delayed presentation is common due to lack of awareness. We have analyzed the epidemiological profile of our patients and tried to establish the link between delayed presentation and the presence of high-risk features. High-risk features are associated with higher chance of metastasis and poor rates of vision salvage in RB.

Methodology:

Data were collected in a retrospective manner from the patient case files retrieved from the Medical Records Department, Kidwai cancer Institute. The data were analyzed using Excel and SPSS software (IBM Corp. released 2016, IBM SPSS statistics software for Mac OS, version 24, IBM Corp., Armonk, NY).

Results:

A total of 53 patients were diagnosed with RB in the years 2009-2014. There was a male predominance with 1.2:1 incidence. Bilateral RB was present in 21 cases. The mean age of children with bilateral RB was 2.1 years, against 1.5 years in unilateral cases. High-risk features such as optic nerve invasion, choroidal invasion, intracranial extension, and orbital involvement were found in 12, 6, 5, and 5 eyes, respectively. Bone marrow involvement was detected in 5% and lung metastasis in 2%. Intracranial involvement was found in 10.4% and cerebrospinal fluid positivity in 15%. Children with high-risk features had a significant delay in presentation in comparison to those without high-risk features (P = 0.035).

Conclusion:

Incidence of metastatic disease and delayed presentation is still high in developing countries. Routine eye examination during vaccination visits can ensure early diagnosis and appropriate referral in many of these children.

KEYWORDS:

Delayed presentation; high-risk features; metastasis

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