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Elife. 2020 Jan 17;9. pii: e53402. doi: 10.7554/eLife.53402.

Kinesin Kif2C in regulation of DNA double strand break dynamics and repair.

Author information

1
Department of Oral Biology, College of Dentistry, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, United States.
2
Institute for Research in Immunology and Cancer (IRIC), Département de médecine, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Canada.
3
Institute of Physical Science and Information Technology, Anhui University, Hefei, China.
4
Eppley Institute for Research in Cancer and Allied Diseases, Fred & Pamela Buffett Cancer Center, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, United States.
#
Contributed equally

Abstract

DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) have detrimental effects on cell survival and genomic stability, and are related to cancer and other human diseases. In this study, we identified microtubule-depolymerizing kinesin Kif2C as a protein associated with DSB-mimicking DNA templates and known DSB repair proteins in Xenopus egg extracts and mammalian cells. The recruitment of Kif2C to DNA damage sites was dependent on both PARP and ATM activities. Kif2C knockdown or knockout led to accumulation of endogenous DNA damage, DNA damage hypersensitivity, and reduced DSB repair via both NHEJ and HR. Interestingly, Kif2C depletion, or inhibition of its microtubule depolymerase activity, reduced the mobility of DSBs, impaired the formation of DNA damage foci, and decreased the occurrence of foci fusion and resolution. Taken together, our study established Kif2C as a new player of the DNA damage response, and presented a new mechanism that governs DSB dynamics and repair.

plain-language-summary:

DNA can be damaged in many ways, and a double strand break is one of the most dangerous. This occurs when both strands of the double helix snap at the same time, leaving two broken ends. When cells detect this kind of damage, they race to get it fixed as quickly as possible. Fixing these double strand breaks is thought to involve the broken ends being moved to 'repair centers’ in the nucleus of the cell, but it was unclear how the broken ends were moved. One possibility was that the cells transport the broken ends along protein filaments called microtubules. Cells can assemble these track-like filaments on-demand to carry cargo attached to molecular motors called kinesins. However, this type of transport happens outside of the cell’s nucleus, and while there are different kinesin proteins localized inside the nucleus, their roles are largely unknown. In an effort to understand how broken DNA ends are repaired, Zhu, Paydar et al. conducted experiments that simulated double strand breaks and examined the proteins that responded. The first set of experiments involved mixing cut pieces of DNA with extracts taken from frog eggs or human cells. Zhu, Paydar et al. found that one kinesin called Kif2C stuck to the DNA fragments, and attached to many proteins known to play a role in DNA damage repair. Kif2C had previously been shown to help separate the chromosomes during cell division. To find out more about its potential role in DNA repair, Zhu, Paydar et al. then used a laser to create breaks in the DNA of living human cells and tracked Kif2C movement. The kinesin arrived within 60 seconds of the DNA damage and appeared to transport the cut DNA ends to 'repair centers'. Getting rid of Kif2C, or blocking its activity, had dire effects on the cells' abilities to mobilize and repair breaks to its DNA. Without the molecular motor, fewer double strand breaks were repaired, and so DNA damage started to build up. Defects in double strand break repair happen in many human diseases, including cancer. Many cancer treatments damage the DNA of cancer cells, sometimes in combination with drugs that stop cells from building and using their microtubule transport systems. Understanding the new role of Kif2C in DNA damage repair could therefore help optimize these treatment combinations.

KEYWORDS:

DNA repair; Kif2C; MCAK; cell biology; dynamics; human; mobility

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