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Mol Nutr Food Res. 2020 Mar;64(6):e1900873. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.201900873. Epub 2020 Feb 12.

Plant- and Fish-Derived n-3 PUFAs Suppress Citrobacter Rodentium-Induced Colonic Inflammation.

Author information

1
Cell Biology Program, Research Institute, Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 1X8, Canada.
2
Biology Department, Burman University, Lacombe, Alberta, T4L 2E5, Canada.
3
Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, von Haunersches Kinderspital, Ludwig-Maximillians-University LMU, Munich, 80539, Germany.
4
Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A1, Canada.
5
William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, Charterhouse Square, London, EC1M 6BQ, UK.
6
Division of General and Thoracic Surgery, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 1X8, Canada.
7
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Université de Moncton, Moncton, New Brunswick, E1A 3E9, Canada.
8
Centre for Inflammation and Therapeutic Innovation, Queen Mary University of London, London, E1 4NS, UK.
9
Faculty of Dentistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A1, Canada.

Abstract

SCOPE:

Marine-derived n-3 PUFAs may ameliorate inflammation associated with inflammatory bowel diseases. Plant-derived n-3 PUFAs are thought to be inferior owing to shorter chain lengths. The aim of this study is to compare the impact of plant- and fish-derived PUFAs on murine colitis.

METHODS AND RESULTS:

C57BL/6 mice are fed high fat (36% kcal) diets with either 2.5% w/w sunflower oil (SO), flaxseed oil (FSO), ahiflower oil (AO), or fish oil (FO). After 4 weeks, mice are orogastrically challenged with Citrobacter rodentium (108 CFU) or sham gavaged. Fecal shedding is assayed at 2, 7, 10, and 14 days post infection (PI), and fecal microbiota at 14 days PI. Colonic inflammation and lipid mediators are measured. Supplementation regulates intestinal inflammation with crypt lengths being 66, 73, and 62 ±17 µm shorter (compared to SO) for FSO, AO, and FO respectively, p < 0.01. FSO blunts pathogen shedding at the peak of infection and FSO and AO both enhance fecal microbial diversity. FO attenuates levels of lipoxin and leukotriene B4 while plant oils increase pro-resolving mediator concentrations including D, E, and T-series resolvins.

CONCLUSION:

Plant and fish n-3 PUFAs attenuate colitis-induced inflammation while exhibiting characteristic pro-resolving lipid mediator metabolomes. Plant oils additionally promote microbial diversity.

KEYWORDS:

PUFAs; colon; inflammation; lipid mediators

PMID:
31945799
DOI:
10.1002/mnfr.201900873

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