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Environ Sci Technol. 2020 Feb 4;54(3):1740-1749. doi: 10.1021/acs.est.9b05836. Epub 2020 Jan 24.

Trends and Patterns of Phthalates and Phthalate Alternatives Exposure in Pregnant Women from Mexico City during 2007-2010.

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Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Mailman School of Public Health , Columbia University , New York , New York 10032 , United States.
Department of Epidemiology, College of Global Public Health , New York University , New York , New York 10012 , United States.
Department of Environmental Medicine and Public Health , Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai , New York , New York 10029 , United States.
National Center for Environmental Health , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , Atlanta , Georgia 30341 , United States.
Division of Chronic Disease Research Across the Lifecourse, Department of Population Medicine , Harvard Medical School and Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute , Boston , Massachusetts 02115 , United States.
Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health , Brown University , Providence , Rhode Island 02912 , United States.
Center for Nutrition and Health Research, National Institute of Public Health , Ministry of Health , 62100 Cuernavaca , Morelos , Mexico.
Department of Pediatrics , Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai , New York , New York 10029 , United States.


Phthalates are associated with several adverse health outcomes, but few studies have evaluated phthalate exposures in Mexican populations, particularly pregnant women. Between 2007 and 2011, 948 pregnant women from Mexico City were recruited as part of the PROGRESS cohort. We quantified 17 metabolites of phthalates and phthalate alternatives in urine samples collected during the second and third trimesters and examined temporal trends of metabolite concentrations, within-person reproducibility, and relations of individual metabolites with sociodemographic, lifestyle, and occupational factors. Concentrations of mono-2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl terephthalate, a metabolite of the alternative phthalate di-2-ethylhexyl terephthalate, increased monotonically from 2007 to 2010 (31% per year; 95% confidence interval = 23 and 39%). We observed moderate to high correlations among metabolites collected at the same visit, but there was high variability between second and third trimester phthalate metabolite concentrations (intraclass correlation coefficients = 0.17-0.35). In general, higher socioeconomic status was associated with higher phthalate concentrations. Some metabolites were associated with maternal age and education, but no consistent patterns were observed. Women working in the home and those who worked in administration had higher concentrations of several phthalate metabolites relative to students, professionals, and those in customer service. Biomonitoring efforts are warranted to investigate present and future exposure trends and patterns.

[Available on 2021-02-04]
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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