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Taiwan J Ophthalmol. 2019 Dec 13;9(4):255-261. doi: 10.4103/tjo.tjo_62_18. eCollection 2019 Oct-Dec.

Treatment outcomes of zone 1 retinopathy of prematurity: A study from a tertiary eye care center in South India.

Author information

1
Department of Retina, Medical Research Foundation, Sankara Nethralaya, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
2
Department of Uvea, Medical Research Foundation, Sankara Nethralaya, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

The main purpose is to study the treatment outcomes of zone 1 retinopathy of prematurity (ROP).

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

A retrospective analysis was done of infants diagnosed with zone 1 ROP with any stage with or without plus disease who were treated with either laser photocoagulation and/or intravitreal injection of antivascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) agents and/or underwent surgery according to their stage at presentation. The retinal outcome at the final visit was analyzed. A favorable outcome was characterized by an attached retina at the posterior pole with regression of ROP (regression of plus disease as well as new vessels) while an unfavorable outcome was detached retina at posterior pole in spite of treatment.

RESULTS:

Seventy-eight eyes of 39 infants presented with zone 1 ROP in various stages with plus disease in 50% cases. About 60 eyes underwent treatment. Forty eyes (66.6%) had an attached retina at the final follow-up. Thirty-three eyes (55%) underwent monotherapy with 14 eyes (23.3%) showing regression of ROP with laser alone. Nineteen (31.6%) eyes were treated only by surgery. Of these, a favorable outcome was seen in four eyes (44.4%) with Stage 4 disease and three eyes (30%) with Stage 5 disease. None of the eyes received anti-VEGF as monotherapy. A combination of two or more modalities was required in the remaining 27 eyes (45%). Six eyes (10%) needed anti-VEGF injections in addition to laser and six eyes needed surgery in addition to laser to achieve a favorable outcome. Six eyes (10%) required surgery in addition to both laser and anti-VEGF therapy, and one eye (1.6%) required surgery in addition to anti-VEGF therapy for a favorable final outcome. Among the eyes undergoing treatment, 66.6% had a favorable outcome with 92.9% of eyes in Stage 3, 59% in Stage 4, and 33% in Stage 5 showing regression of disease and attached retina.

CONCLUSION:

In spite of the aggressive nature of zone 1 ROP, favorable outcome is possible as was seen in 66.6% of our cases. A multipronged approach using a combination of laser, intravitreal anti-VEGF agents with or without surgery may be necessary for the management of these eyes.

KEYWORDS:

Antivascular endothelial growth factor; laser photocoagulation; surgery; zone 1 retinopathy of prematurity

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