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HIV Med. 2020 Jan 11. doi: 10.1111/hiv.12829. [Epub ahead of print]

Continuation of emtricitabine/lamivudine within combination antiretroviral therapy following detection of the M184V/I HIV-1 resistance mutation.

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Institute for Global Health, University College London, London, UK.
Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, London, UK.
London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
CNWL Mortimer Market Centre, London, UK.
Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London, UK.



The aim of the study was to investigate whether lamivudine (3TC) or emtricitabine (FTC) use following detection of M184V/I is associated with better virological outcomes.


We identified people with viruses harbouring the M184V/I mutation in UK multicentre data sets who had treatment change/initiation within 1 year. We analysed outcomes of viral suppression (< 200 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL) and appearance of new major drug resistance mutations (DRMs) using Cox and Poisson models, with stratification by new drug regimen (excluding 3TC/FTC) and Bayesian implementation, and estimated the effect of 3TC/FTC adjusted for individual and viral characteristics.


We included 2597 people with the M184V/I resistance mutation, of whom 665 (25.6%) were on 3TC and 458 (17.6%) on FTC. We found a negative adjusted association between 3TC/FTC use and viral suppression [hazard ratio (HR) 0.84; 95% credibility interval (CrI) 0.71-0.98]. On subgroup analysis of individual drugs, there was no evidence of an association with viral suppression for 3TC (n = 184; HR 0.94; 95% CrI 0.73-1.15) or FTC (n = 454; HR 0.99; 95% CrI 0.80-1.19) amongst those on tenofovir-containing regimens, but we estimated a reduced rate of viral suppression for people on 3TC amongst those without tenofovir use (n = 481; HR 0.71; 95% CrI 0.54-0.90). We found no association between 3TC/FTC and detection of any new DRM (overall HR 0.92; 95% CrI 0.64-1.18), but found inconclusive evidence of a lower incidence rate of new DRMs (overall incidence rate ratio 0.69; 95% CrI 0.34-1.11).


We did not find evidence that 3TC or FTC use is associated with an increase in viral suppression, but it may reduce the appearance of additional DRMs in people with M184V/I. 3TC was associated with reduced viral suppression amongst people on regimens without tenofovir.


HIV; M184I; M184V; emtricitabine; lamivudine


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