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J Perinat Med. 2020 Jan 11. pii: /j/jpme.ahead-of-print/jpm-2019-0422/jpm-2019-0422.xml. doi: 10.1515/jpm-2019-0422. [Epub ahead of print]

Maternal smoking and cannabis use during pregnancy and infant outcomes.

Author information

1
Department of Women and Children's Health, School of Life Course Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine, King's College London, London, UK.
2
Neonatal Intensive Care Centre, King's College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.
3
Neonatal Intensive Care Centre, 4Floor Golden Jubilee Wing, King's College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Denmark Hill, London SE5 9RS, UK.
4
Department of Women and Children's Health, School of Life Course Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine, King's College London, London SE5 9RS, UK.
5
The Asthma UK Centre for Allergic Mechanisms in Asthma, King's College London, London SE5 9RS, UK.
6
NIHR Biomedical Centre at Guy's and St Thomas NHS Foundation Trust and King's College London, London SE1 9RT, UK.

Abstract

Background Our aim was to determine the prevalence of tobacco smoking and e-cigarettes and cannabis use during pregnancy, whether these were influenced by ethnicity, and their relationship to perinatal outcomes. Methods A study was carried out in 4465 infants whose mothers delivered during 2017 and 2018. Self-reported maternal smoking, e-cigarette and cannabis use at booking were recorded. Outcome measures were birthweight and head circumference z-scores and admission to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Results Two hundred and five women reported smoking cigarettes (4.7%), five were using e-cigarettes (0.11%) and 106 were using cannabis (2.43%). Women were most likely to smoke if young (15-19 years old) or from a mixed-race or White background. Cigarette smoking was associated with a lower mean z-score for birthweight (-0.587 vs. -0.064) and head circumference (-0.782 vs. -0.157) (both outcomes P < 0.0001). Young, mixed-race women were most likely to be both smoking and using cannabis during pregnancy and their infants had a lower birthweight mean z score (-0.989 vs. -0.587, P = 0.028) and head circumference z score (-1.33 vs. 0.782, P = 0.025) than cigarette use alone. Conclusion Young, mixed-race women were most likely to be both smoking and using cannabis during pregnancy and should be targeted for cessation programmes.

KEYWORDS:

birthweight; cannabis; cigarette smoking; e-cigarettes; head circumference

PMID:
31926099
DOI:
10.1515/jpm-2019-0422

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