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Schizophr Res. 2020 Jan 8. pii: S0920-9964(19)30598-5. doi: 10.1016/j.schres.2019.12.028. [Epub ahead of print]

Odor identification in 7-year-old children at familial high risk of schizophrenia or bipolar disorder - the Danish high risk and resilience study VIA 7.

Author information

1
Child and Adolescent Mental Health Centre, Mental Health Services, Gentofte Hospitalsvej, Entrance 15, 4th Floor, DK-2900, Hellerup, Copenhagen, Capital Region of Denmark, Denmark. Electronic address: anna.hester.ver.loren.van.themaat.01@regionh.dk.
2
Copenhagen Research Centre for Mental Health - CORE, Mental Health Centre Copenhagen, Mental Health Services, Copenhagen Gentofte Hospitalsvej 15, 4th Floor, Hellerup, DK-2900 Copenhagen, Capital Region of Denmark, Denmark; The Lundbeck Foundation Initiative for Integrative Psychiatric Research (iPSYCH), Fuglesangs Allé 26, DK-8210 Aarhus, Denmark; Section of Biostatistics, Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Øster Farimagsgade 5, DK-10104 Copenhagen, Denmark.
3
Copenhagen Research Centre for Mental Health - CORE, Mental Health Centre Copenhagen, Mental Health Services, Copenhagen Gentofte Hospitalsvej 15, 4th Floor, Hellerup, DK-2900 Copenhagen, Capital Region of Denmark, Denmark; The Lundbeck Foundation Initiative for Integrative Psychiatric Research (iPSYCH), Fuglesangs Allé 26, DK-8210 Aarhus, Denmark.
4
Child and Adolescent Mental Health Centre, Mental Health Services, Gentofte Hospitalsvej, Entrance 15, 4th Floor, DK-2900, Hellerup, Copenhagen, Capital Region of Denmark, Denmark; Copenhagen Research Centre for Mental Health - CORE, Mental Health Centre Copenhagen, Mental Health Services, Copenhagen Gentofte Hospitalsvej 15, 4th Floor, Hellerup, DK-2900 Copenhagen, Capital Region of Denmark, Denmark; The Lundbeck Foundation Initiative for Integrative Psychiatric Research (iPSYCH), Fuglesangs Allé 26, DK-8210 Aarhus, Denmark.
5
Child and Adolescent Mental Health Centre, Mental Health Services, Gentofte Hospitalsvej, Entrance 15, 4th Floor, DK-2900, Hellerup, Copenhagen, Capital Region of Denmark, Denmark; The Lundbeck Foundation Initiative for Integrative Psychiatric Research (iPSYCH), Fuglesangs Allé 26, DK-8210 Aarhus, Denmark.
6
The Lundbeck Foundation Initiative for Integrative Psychiatric Research (iPSYCH), Fuglesangs Allé 26, DK-8210 Aarhus, Denmark; Psychosis Research Unit, Aarhus University Hospital, Palle Juul-Jensens Boulevard 175, DK-8200 Aarhus, Denmark.
7
Copenhagen Research Centre for Mental Health - CORE, Mental Health Centre Copenhagen, Mental Health Services, Copenhagen Gentofte Hospitalsvej 15, 4th Floor, Hellerup, DK-2900 Copenhagen, Capital Region of Denmark, Denmark; The Lundbeck Foundation Initiative for Integrative Psychiatric Research (iPSYCH), Fuglesangs Allé 26, DK-8210 Aarhus, Denmark; Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 3B, DK-2200 Copenhagen, Denmark.
8
Child and Adolescent Mental Health Centre, Mental Health Services, Gentofte Hospitalsvej, Entrance 15, 4th Floor, DK-2900, Hellerup, Copenhagen, Capital Region of Denmark, Denmark; The Lundbeck Foundation Initiative for Integrative Psychiatric Research (iPSYCH), Fuglesangs Allé 26, DK-8210 Aarhus, Denmark; Service of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, University Medical Center, University of Lausanne, Avenue d'Echallens 9, CH-1004 Lausanne, Switzerland.
9
Child and Adolescent Mental Health Centre, Mental Health Services, Gentofte Hospitalsvej, Entrance 15, 4th Floor, DK-2900, Hellerup, Copenhagen, Capital Region of Denmark, Denmark; Copenhagen Research Centre for Mental Health - CORE, Mental Health Centre Copenhagen, Mental Health Services, Copenhagen Gentofte Hospitalsvej 15, 4th Floor, Hellerup, DK-2900 Copenhagen, Capital Region of Denmark, Denmark; The Lundbeck Foundation Initiative for Integrative Psychiatric Research (iPSYCH), Fuglesangs Allé 26, DK-8210 Aarhus, Denmark; Center for Neuropsychiatric Schizophrenia Research, Mental Health Services, Glostrup, Ndr. Ringvej 29-67, Copenhagen DK-2600, Capital Region of Denmark, Denmark; Center for Clinical Intervention and Neuropsychiatric Schizophrenia Research, Mental Health Services, Nordstjernevej 41, Glostrup, Copenhagen DK-2600, Capital Region of Denmark, Denmark.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Odor identification deficits occur in individuals with schizophrenia and their unaffected first-degree relatives, while deficits are less pronounced in individuals with bipolar disorder. We hypothesized that children at familial high-risk for schizophrenia (FHR-SZ) show odor identification deficits compared to population-based controls and that children at familial high-risk for bipolar disorder (FHR-BP) perform intermediate.

METHODS:

Odor identification was assessed at age 7 in 184 children with FHR-SZ, 106 children with FHR-BP, and 186 population-based controls with the Brief Smell Identification Test. Dimensional and predefined categorical outcomes were used in the analyses. Potential relationships with psychopathological, cognitive, and home environmental variables were conducted using hierarchical and logistic multiple regression analyses.

RESULTS:

ANOVA revealed no between-group differences in odor identification. Using the recommended cut-off (below 5), we found a significantly greater proportion of boys at FHR-SZ than population-based boys with an abnormal odor identification (p = .013). However, a supplementary analysis using a Danish-based cut-off (below 4) did not support this. All children showed significant, positive associations of odor identification with female gender, social responsiveness, and verbal working memory. Lower social responsiveness predicted abnormal odor identification in boys at FHR-SZ, only using the recommended cut-off.

CONCLUSIONS:

Odor identification efficacy and risk status appear independent in this early developmental phase. Using the recommended threshold, abnormal odor identification is more frequent in young boys at FHR-SZ than in population-based boys and is linked to lower social responsiveness. The validity of these results is questioned by non-significant differences in the rates when using an exploratory Danish-based threshold.

KEYWORDS:

Endophenotype; Neurodevelopment; Offspring; Olfactory functioning

Conflict of interest statement

Declaration of competing interest There are no conflicts of interest for any of the authors.

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