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Indian J Sex Transm Dis AIDS. 2019 Jul-Dec;40(2):139-145. doi: 10.4103/ijstd.IJSTD_54_18.

Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related discriminatory practices among health-care providers in apex health institutions of Bhubaneswar, Odisha.

Author information

Department of Community Medicine, Kalinga Institute of Medical Sciences, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India.



Stigma and discrimination in health-care settings, against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients, not only affects patient care but also creates an unnecessary culture of secrecy and silence based on ignorance and fear.


This study was designed to determine if there were any such discriminatory practices against people living with HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) by health-care providers at apex hospitals in the city of Bhubaneswar, Odisha.

Settings and Design:

A cross-sectional study was designed in clinical departments, among all doctors and paramedical workers who had been providing health services to patients with HIV/AIDS for at least a year in the three large multidisciplinary tertiary care teaching hospitals in Bhubaneswar.

Materials and Methods:

A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data through in-person interviews after obtaining informed consent.

Statistical Analysis Used:

Data were entered into Microsoft Excel spreadsheet and were analyzed using Epi Info 7 (version; results represented using frequencies, proportions, Z-tests, and Chi-square tests.


Around 76.73% of the participants agreed that they were personally aware of discrimination that occurred in health-care settings. About 92.86% of the doctors, 78.12% of the nurses, while 38.09% of other health-care providers (HCPs) agreed to the fact there were some form of discriminatory practices at health facilities; this was also found to be statistically significant. As high as 88.10% of the doctors, 90.62% of the nurses, and 80.96% of other HCPs agreed that there were discriminatory practices against HIV/AIDS patients by HCPs, although this difference was not statistically significant.


Existence of discriminatory practices in these healthcare settings was due to the lack of correct information about HIV/AIDS and lack of protective materials needed for prevention of infection transmission.


Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; Human immunodeficiency virus; discrimination; health care; stigma

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