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Indian J Sex Transm Dis AIDS. 2019 Jul-Dec;40(2):133-138. doi: 10.4103/ijstd.IJSTD_5_18.

Persons living with HIV continue to present late for care: A trend analysis from 2011 to 2015.

Author information

Department of Clinical Sciences, ICMR National AIDS Research Institute, Bhosari, Pune, Maharashtra, India.
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, ICMR National AIDS Research Institute, Bhosari, Pune, Maharashtra, India.
Department of Immunology and Serology, ICMR National AIDS Research Institute, Bhosari, Pune, Maharashtra, India.



The clinical and prevention benefits of early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) have led to the adoption of test and treat policy for HIV. Early diagnosis of HIV is crucial for maximal benefits from ART.


This study aims to assess trends in CD4 cell counts at diagnosis and determinants of late presentation.

Settings and Design:

We analyzed 5-year data from a free HIV/sexually transmitted infection referral clinic immune.

Subjects and Methods:

Persons presenting for HIV testing from January 2011 to December 2015, for whom CD4 cell count results were available within 3 months of HIV diagnosis, were included in the analysis. Persons on ART were excluded from the study.

Statistical Analysis:

The predictors of CD4 cell count at presentation were assessed using univariate and multivariate linear regression.


Of 1001 persons diagnosed HIV-1 positive, 659 had received CD4 test within 3 months of diagnosis. The median CD4 count at presentation ranged from 212 to 352 cells/cmm in these 5 years and did not show any significant change with time. Nearly 40% had CD4 cell counts below 200 cells/cmm (AIDS); additionally, 23% presented below 350 cells/cmm. Older age (beta: -5.78; P = 0.001), education above matriculation (beta: -123.72; P = 0.014), having current opportunistic infections (beta: -173.58; P = 0.037), and being symptomatic (beta: -101.8; P = 0.002) were predictors of presenting at lower CD4 counts.


Between 2011 and 2015, persons with HIV continued to present late in spite of changes in ART access program. Education focused on the benefits of early diagnosis and availability of free immediate treatment in the public sector, are crucial to the achievement of the India's 90-90-90 goals.


CD4 cell count at presentation; HIV diagnosis; trends

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