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J Korean Med Sci. 2020 Jan 13;35:e15. doi: 10.3346/jkms.2020.35.e15.

Cigarette Smoking in Men and Women and Electronic Cigarette Smoking in Men are Associated with Higher Risk of Elevated Cadmium Level in the Blood.

Author information

1
Department of Family Medicine, Chungbuk National University Hospital, Cheongju, Korea.
2
Department of Family Medicine, Chungbuk National University College of Medicine, Cheongju, Korea. kanght0818@gmail.com.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

We investigated the association between blood concentration of cadmium and smoking status including use of electronic cigarettes (E-cigars).

METHODS:

We used data from the Korea National Health and Nutritional Survey 2013 and 2016. A total of 4,744 participants (2,162 men and 2,582 women) were included and were categorized into five groups (Non-smokers, E-cigar non-users in past-smokers, E-cigar users in past-smokers, E-cigar non-users in cigarette-smokers and E-cigar users in cigarette-smokers). Cadmium blood concentration was categorized into tertiles. All sampling and weight variables were stratified, and analysis to account for the complex sampling design was conducted.

RESULTS:

In both genders, the geometric cadmium concentration was significantly different according to smoking status (both genders, analysis of variance P value < 0.001). In men, E-cigar users were significantly higher than the non-smokers (P value = past-smokers, 0.017; cigarette-smokers, < 0.001) when fully adjusted. Compared with non-smokers, fully-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for the highest cadmium tertiles of E-cigar non-users in cigarette-smokers and E-cigar users in cigarette-smokers were 6.56 (3.55-12.11) and 5.68 (1.96-16.50) in men and 2.74 (1.42-5.29) and 1.29 (0.10-17.44) in women.

CONCLUSION:

Conventional cigarette smoking in men and women and E-cigar use in men are associated with higher risk of elevated blood cadmium level. Preventive management of cadmium exposure monitoring in conventional cigarette-smokers and E-cigar users may be needed.

KEYWORDS:

Cadmium; Electronic Cigarette; Smoking; Tobacco

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