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J Cancer Educ. 2020 Jan 9. doi: 10.1007/s13187-020-01687-4. [Epub ahead of print]

Development of Decisional Values Statements for Lung Cancer Screening Among African American Smokers.

Author information

1
Department of Oncology, Cancer Prevention and Control Program, Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University Medical Center, 3300 Whitehaven Street NW Suite 4100, Washington, DC, 20007, USA. rmw27@georgetown.edu.
2
Department of Behavioral and Community Health, School of Public Health, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA.
3
Department of Oncology, Cancer Prevention and Control Program, Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University Medical Center, 3300 Whitehaven Street NW Suite 4100, Washington, DC, 20007, USA.

Abstract

Lung cancer screening via low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) has been underutilized by high-risk current and former smokers since its approval in 2013. Further, lower use of other evidence-based cancer screening tests (e.g., colorectal cancer, breast cancer) has been noted among African Americans when compared with other racial and ethnic groups. Reasons for low uptake are multilayered but include the need for consideration of patients' personal values about the screening decision. The goal of the present study was to (1) identify positive and negative factors specific to lung cancer screening via LDCT and (2) develop statements to capture values about the screening test for use in a new measure of decisional values. Key informant interviews (n = 9) identified several benefits and risks of lung cancer screening that may be important to African American smokers. Based on these interviews, a pool of items with the values statements was administered to a convenience sample of 119 African Americans [aged 55-80 years, current or former smokers (who quit < 15 years), and without lung cancer]. An exploratory factor analysis revealed two components explaining 64% of the variance: cons of screening (e.g., "make you feel badly about your smoking history") and pros of screening (e.g., "lowering your risk of dying from lung cancer"). The final 12-item measure had very good internal consistency (α = 0.89 overall; α = 0.86 and 0.88 for subscales, respectively). This tool provides a promising values measure for lung cancer screening among African Americans and could inform future values clarification tools promoting informed and shared decision-making.

KEYWORDS:

African Americans; Decisional values; Informed decision-making; Low-dose computed tomography; Lung cancer screening

PMID:
31916120
DOI:
10.1007/s13187-020-01687-4

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