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Inj Prev. 2020 Jan 8. pii: injuryprev-2019-043296. doi: 10.1136/injuryprev-2019-043296. [Epub ahead of print]

Burden of injury along the development spectrum: associations between the Socio-demographic Index and disability-adjusted life year estimates from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017.

Haagsma JA1, James SL2, Castle CD3, Dingels ZV3, Fox JT3, Hamilton EB3, Liu Z3, Lucchesi LR3, Roberts NLS3, Sylte DO3, Adebayo OM4, Ahmadi A5, Ahmed MB6, Aichour MTE7, Alahdab F8, Alghnam SA9, Aljunid SM10,11, Al-Raddadi RM12, Alsharif U13, Altirkawi K14, Anjomshoa M15, Antonio CAT16,17, Appiah SCY18,19, Aremu O20, Arora A21,22, Asayesh H23, Assadi R24, Awasthi A25, Ayala Quintanilla BP26,27, Balalla S28, Banstola A29, Barker-Collo SL30, Bärnighausen TW31,32, Bazargan-Hejazi S33,34, Bedi N35, Behzadifar M36, Behzadifar M37, Benjet C38, Bennett DA39, Bensenor IM40, Bhaumik S41, Bhutta ZA42,43, Bijani A44, Borges G38, Borschmann R45,46, Bose D47, Boufous S48, Brazinova A49, Campuzano Rincon JC50,51, Cárdenas R52, Carrero JJ53, Carvalho F54, Castañeda-Orjuela CA55,56, Catalá-López F57,58, Choi JJ59, Christopher DJ60, Crowe CS61, Dalal K62,63, Daryani A64, Davitoiu DV65,66, Degenhardt L3,67, De Leo D68, De Neve JW31, Deribe K69,70, Dessie GA71, deVeber GA72, Dharmaratne SD3,73, Doan LP74, Dolan KA75, Driscoll TR76, Dubey M77, El-Khatib Z78,79, Ellingsen CL80, El Sayed Zaki M81, Endries AY82, Eskandarieh S83, Faro A84, Fereshtehnejad SM85,86, Fernandes E87, Filip I88,89, Fischer F90, Franklin RC91, Fukumoto T92,93, Gezae KE94, Gill TK95, Goulart AC96,97, Grada A98, Guo Y99,100, Gupta R101,102, Haghparast Bidgoli H103, Haj-Mirzaian A104,105, Haj-Mirzaian A104,106, Hamadeh RR107, Hamidi S108, Haro JM109,110, Hassankhani H111,112, Hassen HY113,114, Havmoeller R115, Hendrie D116, Henok A113, Híjar M117,118, Hole MK119, Homaie Rad E120,121, Hossain N122,123, Hostiuc S124,125, Hu G126, Igumbor EU127,128, Ilesanmi OS129, Irvani SSN130, Islam SMS131,132, Ivers RQ133, Jacobsen KH134, Jahanmehr N135,136, Jakovljevic M137, Jayatilleke AU138,139, Jha RP140, Jonas JB141,142, Jorjoran Shushtari Z143, Jozwiak JJ144, Jürisson M145, Kabir A146, Kalani R147, Kasaeian A148,149, Kelbore AG150, Kengne AP151,152, Khader YS153, Khafaie MA154, Khalid N155, Khan EA156, Khoja AT157,158, Kiadaliri AA159, Kim YE160, Kim D161, Kisa A162, Koyanagi A163,164, Kuate Defo B165,166, Kucuk Bicer B167,168, Kumar M169,170, Lalloo R171, Lam H172, Lami FH173, Lansingh VC174,175, Leasher JL176, Li S99, Linn S177, Lunevicius R178,179, Machado FR180, Magdy Abd El Razek H181, Magdy Abd El Razek M182, Mahotra NB183, Majdan M184, Majeed A185, Malekzadeh R186,187, Malik MA188,189, Malta DC190, Manda AL191, Mansournia MA192, Massenburg BB61, Maulik PK193,194, Meheretu HAA71,195, Mehndiratta MM196,197, Melese A198, Mendoza W199, Mengesha MM200, Meretoja TJ201,202, Meretoja A203,204, Mestrovic T205,206, Miazgowski T207, Miller TR116,208, Mini GK209,210, Mirrakhimov EM211,212, Moazen B31,213, Mohammad Gholi Mezerji N214, Mohammadibakhsh R215, Mohammed S31,216, Molokhia M217, Monasta L218, Mondello S219,220, Montero-Zamora PA221,222, Moodley Y223, Moosazadeh M224, Moradi G225,226, Moradi-Lakeh M227, Morawska L228, Velásquez IM229, Morrison SD230, Moschos MM231,232, Mousavi SM233,234, Murthy S235, Musa KI236, Naik G237, Najafi F238, Nangia V239, Nascimento BR240, Ndwandwe DE241, Negoi I65,242, Nguyen TH243, Nguyen SH243, Nguyen LH243, Nguyen HLT244, Ningrum DNA245,246, Nirayo YL247, Ofori-Asenso R248,249, Ogbo FA250, Oh IH251, Oladimeji O252,253, Olagunju AT254,255, Olagunju TO256, Olivares PR257, Orpana HM258,259, Otstavnov SS260,261, P A M262, Pakhale S263, Park EK264, Patton GC265,266, Pesudovs K267, Phillips MR268,269, Polinder S1, Prakash S270, Radfar A271,272, Rafay A273, Rafiei A274,275, Rahimi S276, Rahimi-Movaghar V277, Rahman MA278,279, Rai RK280,281, Ramezanzadeh K282, Rawaf S185,283, Rawaf DL284,285, Renzaho AMN250,286, Resnikoff S287,288, Rezaeian S289, Roever L290, Ronfani L218, Roshandel G186,291, Sabde YD292, Saddik B293, Salamati P277, Salimi Y238,294, Salz I295, Samy AM296, Sanabria J297,298, Sanchez Riera L299,300, Santric Milicevic MM301,302, Satpathy M303,304, Sawhney M305, Sawyer SM45,265, Saxena S306, Saylan M307, Schneider IJC308, Schwebel DC309, Seedat S310, Sepanlou SG186,187, Shaikh MA311, Shams-Beyranvand M312,313, Shamsizadeh M314, Sharif-Alhoseini M277, Sheikh A315,316, Shen J317, Shigematsu M318, Shiri R319, Shiue I320, Silva JP54, Singh JA321,322, Sinha DN323,324, Soares Filho AM325, Soriano JB326,327, Soshnikov S328, Soyiri IN329,330, Starodubov VI331, Stein DJ324,332, Stokes MA333, Sufiyan MB334, Sunshine JE335, Sykes BL336, Tabarés-Seisdedos R337,338, Tabb KM339, Tehrani-Banihashemi A227,340, Tessema GA341,342, Thakur JS343, Tran KB344,345, Tran BX346, Tudor Car L347, Uthman OA348, Uzochukwu BSC349, Valdez PR350,351, Varavikova E352, Vasconcelos AMN353,354, Venketasubramanian N355,356, Violante FS357,358, Vlassov V359, Waheed Y360, Wang YP361, Wijeratne T362,363, Winkler AS364,365, Yadav P366, Yano Y367, Yenesew MA195, Yip P368,369, Yisma E370, Yonemoto N371, Younis MZ372,373, Yu C374,375, Zafar S376, Zaidi Z377, Zaman SB378,379, Zamani M380, Zhao Y381, Zodpey S382, Hay SI3,383, Lopez AD3,384, Mokdad AH3,383, Vos T3,383.

Author information

1
Department of Public Health, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
2
Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA spencj@uw.edu.
3
Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.
4
Department of Medicine, University College Hospital Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.
5
Department of Anesthesiology, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.
6
Department of Epidemiology, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia.
7
Higher National School of Veterinary Medicine, Algiers, Algeria.
8
Evidence Based Practice Center, Mayo Clinic Foundation for Medical Education and Research, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.
9
Department of Population Health Research, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
10
Department of Health Policy and Management, Kuwait University, Safat, Kuwait.
11
International Centre for Casemix and Clinical Coding, National University of Malaysia, Bandar Tun Razak, Malaysia.
12
Department of Family and Community Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
13
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospital Knappschaftskrankenhaus Bochum, Bochum, Germany.
14
King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
15
Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran.
16
Department of Health Policy and Administration, University of the Philippines Manila, Manila, Philippines.
17
Department of Applied Social Sciences, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, China.
18
Department of Sociology and Social Work, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana.
19
Center for International Health, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich, Germany.
20
School of Health Sciences, Birmingham City University, Birmingham, UK.
21
School of Science and Health, Western Sydney University, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
22
Oral Health Services, Sydney Local Health District, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
23
Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, Iran.
24
Education Development Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.
25
Indian Institute of Public Health, Gandhinagar, India.
26
The Judith Lumley Centre, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
27
General Office for Research and Technological Transfer, Peruvian National Institute of Health, Lima, Peru.
28
School of Public Health, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand.
29
Department of Research, Public Health Perspective Nepal, Pokhara-Lekhnath Metropolitan City, Nepal.
30
School of Psychology, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.
31
Heidelberg Institute of Global Health (HIGH), Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany.
32
T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
33
Department of Psychiatry, Charles R. Drew University of Medicine and Science, Los Angeles, California, USA.
34
Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA.
35
Department of Community Medicine, Gandhi Medical College Bhopal, Bhopal, India.
36
Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran.
37
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran.
38
Department of Epidemiology and Psychosocial Research, Ramón de la Fuente Muñiz National Institute of Psychiatry, Mexico City, Mexico.
39
Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.
40
Department of Internal Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
41
The George Institute for Global Health, New Delhi, India.
42
Centre for Global Child Health, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
43
Centre of Excellence in Women and Child Health, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan.
44
Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran.
45
Centre for Adolescent Health, Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
46
School of Population and Global Health, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
47
Transport & Digital Development, World Bank, Washington, District of Columbia, USA.
48
Transport and Road Safety (TARS) Research Department, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
49
Institute of Epidemiology, Comenius University, Bratislava, Slovakia.
50
National Institute of Public Health, Cuernavaca, Mexico.
51
School of Medicine, University of the Valley of Cuernavaca, Cuernavaca, Mexico.
52
Department of Population and Health, Metropolitan Autonomous University, Mexico City, Mexico.
53
Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
54
UCIBIO, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.
55
Colombian National Health Observatory, National Institute of Health, Bogota, Colombia.
56
Epidemiology and Public Health Evaluation Group, National University of Colombia, Bogota, Colombia.
57
National School of Public Health, Carlos III Health Institute, Madrid, Spain.
58
Clinical Epidemiology Program, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
59
Department of Biochemistry and Biomedical Science, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, South Korea.
60
Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Christian Medical College and Hospital (CMC), Vellore, India.
61
Division of Plastic Surgery, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.
62
Institute of Public Health Kalyani, Kalyani, India.
63
School of Health Science, Orebro University, Orebro, Sweden.
64
Toxoplasmosis Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.
65
Department of General Surgery, Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest, Romania.
66
Department of Surgery, Clinical Emergency Hospital Sf. Pantelimon, Bucharest, Romania.
67
National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
68
Australian Institute for Suicide Research and Prevention, Griffith University, Mount Gravatt, Queensland, Australia.
69
Department of Global Health and Infection, Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Brighton, UK.
70
School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
71
Department of Nursing, Debre Markos University, Debre Markos, Ethiopia.
72
Centre for Global Child Health, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
73
Department of Community Medicine, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka.
74
Center of Excellence in Health Service Management, Nguyen Tat Thanh University, Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam.
75
University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
76
Sydney School of Public Health, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
77
United Nations World Food Programme, New Delhi, India.
78
Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
79
World Health Programme, Université du Québec en Abitibi-Témiscamingue, Rouyn-Noranda, Quebec, Canada.
80
Department of Pathology, Stavanger University Hospital, Stavanger, Norway.
81
Department of Clinical Pathology, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt.
82
Public Health Department, Saint Paul's Hospital Millennium Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
83
Multiple Sclerosis Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
84
Department of Psychology, Federal University of Sergipe, Sao Cristovao, Brazil.
85
Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
86
Division of Neurology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
87
REQUIMTE/LAQV, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.
88
Psychiatry Department, Kaiser Permanente, Fontana, California, USA.
89
School of Health Sciences, A.T. Still University, Mesa, Arizona, USA.
90
Department of Population Medicine and Health Services Research, Bielefeld University, Bielefeld, Germany.
91
College of Public Health, Medical and Veterinary Science, James Cook University, Douglas, Queensland, Australia.
92
Gene Expression & Regulation Program, The Wistar Institute, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.
93
Department of Dermatology, Kobe University, Kobe, Japan.
94
Department of Biostatistics, Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia.
95
Adelaide Medical School, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.
96
Center for Clinical and Epidemiological Research, University of São Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
97
Internal Medicine Department, University Hospital, University of São Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
98
School of Medicine, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
99
School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
100
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.
101
March of Dimes, Arlington, Virginia, USA.
102
School of Public Health, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, USA.
103
Institute for Global Health, University College London, London, UK.
104
Department of Pharmacology, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
105
Obesity Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
106
Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
107
Department of Family and Community Medicine, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Bahrain.
108
School of Health and Environmental Studies, Hamdan Bin Mohammed Smart University, Dubai, United Arab Emirates.
109
Biomedical Research Networking Center for Mental Health Network (CiberSAM), Madrid, Spain.
110
Research and Development Unit, San Juan de Dios Sanitary Park, Sant Boi de Llobregat, Spain.
111
School of Nursing and Midwifery, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
112
Independent Consultant, Tabriz, Iran.
113
Department of Public Health, Mizan-Tepi University, Teppi, Ethiopia.
114
Unit of Epidemiology and Social Medicine, University Hospital Antwerp, Wilrijk, Belgium.
115
Clinical Sciences, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
116
School of Public Health, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
117
Research Coordination, AC Environments Foundation, Cuernavaca, Mexico.
118
CISS, National Institute of Public Health, Cuernavaca, Mexico.
119
Department of Pediatrics, Dell Medical School, University of Texas Austin, Austin, Texas, USA.
120
Guilan Road Trauma Research Center, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran.
121
Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran.
122
Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka University, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
123
Department of Pharmacology, Bangladesh Industrial Gases Limited, Tangail, Bangladesh.
124
Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Legal Medicine and Bioethics, Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest, Romania.
125
Clinical Legal Medicine Department, National Institute of Legal Medicine Mina Minovici, Bucharest, Romania.
126
Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, Central South University, Changsha, China.
127
School of Public Health, University of the Western Cape, Bellville, Cape Town, South Africa.
128
Department of Public Health, Walter Sisulu University, Mthatha, South Africa.
129
Department of Community Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.
130
Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
131
Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition, Deakin University, Burwood, Victoria, Australia.
132
Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
133
Injury Division, The George Institute for Global Health, Newtown, New South Wales, Australia.
134
Department of Global and Community Health, George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia, USA.
135
School of Management and Medical Education, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
136
Safety Promotion and Injury Prevention Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
137
Department for Health Care and Public Health, I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow, Russia.
138
Institute of Medicine, University of Colombo, Colombo, Sri Lanka.
139
Faculty of Graduate Studies, University of Colombo, Colombo, Sri Lanka.
140
Department of Community Medicine, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India.
141
Department of Ophthalmology, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany.
142
Beijing Institute of Ophthalmology, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Beijing, China.
143
Social Determinants of Health Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
144
Department of Family Medicine and Public Health, University of Opole, Opole, Poland.
145
Institute of Family Medicine and Public Health, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
146
Minimally Invasive Surgery Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
147
Department of Neurology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.
148
Hematology-Oncology and Stem Cell Transplantation Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
149
Pars Advanced and Minimally Invasive Medical Manners Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
150
Department of Dermatology, Wolaita Sodo University, Wolaita Sodo, Ethiopia.
151
Non-communicable Diseases Research Unit, Medical Research Council South Africa, Cape Town, South Africa.
152
Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.
153
Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Ramtha, Jordan.
154
Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.
155
School of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Management and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan.
156
Epidemiology and Biostatistics Department, Health Services Academy, Islamabad, Pakistan.
157
Department of Public Health, Imam Muhammad Ibn Saud Islamic University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
158
Department of Health Policy and Management, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
159
Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
160
Department of Preventive Medicine, Korea University, Seoul, South Korea.
161
Department of Health Sciences, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
162
School of Health Sciences, Kristiania University College, Oslo, Norway.
163
CIBERSAM, San Juan de Dios Sanitary Park, Sant Boi de Llobregat, Spain.
164
Catalan Institution for Research and Advanced Studies (ICREA), Barcelona, Spain.
165
Department of Demography, University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
166
Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
167
Department of Public Health, Yuksek Ihtisas University, Ankara, Turkey.
168
Department of Public Health, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey.
169
Department of Psychiatry, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya.
170
Division of Psychology and Language Sciences, University College London, London, UK.
171
School of Dentistry, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.
172
Institute of Health Policy and Development Studies, National Institutes of Health, Manila, Philippines.
173
Department of Community and Family Medicine, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq.
174
HelpMeSee, New York City, New York, USA.
175
International Relations Department, Mexican Institute of Ophthalmology, Queretaro, Mexico.
176
College of Optometry, Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, USA.
177
School of Public Health, University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel.
178
Department of General Surgery, Aintree University Hospital National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust, Liverpool, UK.
179
Department of Surgery, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK.
180
Anesthesiology, Pain and Intensive Care Department, Federal University of São Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
181
Radiology Department, Mansoura Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura, Egypt.
182
Ophthalmology Department, Aswan Faculty of Medicine, Aswan, Egypt.
183
Institute of Medicine, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal.
184
Department of Public Health, Trnava University, Trnava, Slovakia.
185
Department of Primary Care and Public Health, Imperial College London, London, UK.
186
Digestive Diseases Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
187
Non-communicable Diseases Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.
188
Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, Haridwar, India.
189
Department of Development Studies, International Institute for Population Sciences, Mumbai, India.
190
Department of Maternal and Child Nursing and Public Health, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.
191
Surgery Department, Emergency University Hospital Bucharest, Bucharest, Romania.
192
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
193
Research Department, The George Institute for Global Health, New Delhi, India.
194
School of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
195
School of Public Health, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia.
196
Neurology Department, Janakpuri Super Specialty Hospital Society, New Delhi, India.
197
Neurology Department, Govind Ballabh Institute of Medical Education and Research, New Delhi, India.
198
Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia.
199
Peru Country Office, United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), Lima, Peru.
200
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Haramaya University, Harar, Ethiopia.
201
Breast Surgery Unit, Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.
202
University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
203
Neurocenter, Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.
204
School of Health Sciences, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
205
Clinical Microbiology and Parasitology Unit, Zora Profozic Polyclinic, Zagreb, Croatia.
206
University Centre Varazdin, University North, Varazdin, Croatia.
207
Department of Propedeutics of Internal Diseases & Arterial Hypertension, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin, Poland.
208
Pacific Institute for Research & Evaluation, Calverton, Maryland, USA.
209
Achutha Menon Centre for Health Science Studies, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Trivandrum, India.
210
Global Institute of Public Health (GIPH), Ananthapuri Hospitals and Research Centre, Trivandrum, India.
211
Faculty of Internal Medicine, Kyrgyz State Medical Academy, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan.
212
Department of Atherosclerosis and Coronary Heart Disease, National Center of Cardiology and Internal Disease, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan.
213
Institute of Addiction Research (ISFF), Frankfurt University of Applied Sciences, Frankfurt, Germany.
214
Department of Biostatistics, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.
215
Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.
216
Health Systems and Policy Research Unit, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.
217
Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine, King's College London, London, UK.
218
Clinical Epidemiology and Public Health Research Unit, Burlo Garofolo Institute for Maternal and Child Health, Trieste, Italy.
219
Department of Biomedical and Dental Sciences and Morphofunctional Imaging, University of Messina, Messina, Italy.
220
Department of Neurology, Oasi Research Institute, Troina, Italy.
221
Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Miami, Miami, Florida, USA.
222
Center for Health Systems Research, National Institute of Public Health, Cuernavaca, Mexico.
223
Department of Public Health Medicine, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa.
224
Health Sciences Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.
225
Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran.
226
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran.
227
Preventive Medicine and Public Health Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
228
International Laboratory for Air Quality and Health, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.
229
Gorgas Memorial Institute for Health Studies, Panama City, Panama.
230
Department of Surgery, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.
231
1st Department of Ophthalmology, University of Athens, Athens, Greece.
232
Biomedical Research Foundation, Academy of Athens, Athens, Greece.
233
Health Management Reserach Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
234
Department of Health Management and Economics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
235
Department of Pediatrics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
236
School of Medical Sciences, Science University of Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Malaysia.
237
Department of Epidemiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA.
238
Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.
239
Suraj Eye Institute, Nagpur, India.
240
Hospital of the Federal University of Minas Gerais, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.
241
Cochrane South Africa, South African Medical Research Council, Cape Town, South Africa.
242
General Surgery Department, Emergency Hospital of Bucharest, Bucharest, Romania.
243
Center of Excellence in Behavioral Medicine, Nguyen Tat Thanh University, Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam.
244
Institute for Global Health Innovations, Duy Tan University, Hanoi, Vietnam.
245
Public Health Department, Universitas Negeri Semarang, Kota Semarang, Indonesia.
246
Graduate Institute of Biomedical Informatics, Taipei Medical University, Taipei City, Taiwan.
247
Clinical Pharmacy Unit, Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia.
248
Centre of Cardiovascular Research and Education in Therapeutics, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
249
Independent Consultant, Accra, Ghana.
250
Translational Health Research Institute, Western Sydney University, Penrith, New South Wales, Australia.
251
Department of Preventive Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Dongdaemun-gu, South Korea.
252
HAST, Human Sciences Research Council, Durban, South Africa.
253
School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Namibia, Osakhati, Namibia.
254
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Neurosciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.
255
Department of Psychiatry, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria.
256
Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.
257
Institute of Physical Activity and Health, Autonomous University of Chile, Talca, Chile.
258
Applied Research Division, Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
259
School of Psychology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
260
Analytical Center, Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudny, Russia.
261
Committee for the Comprehensive Assessment of Medical Devices and Information Technology, Health Technology Assessment Association, Moscow, Russia.
262
Department of Respiratory Medicine, Jagadguru Sri Shivarathreeswara Academy of Health Education and Research, Mysore, India.
263
Department of Medicine, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
264
Department of Medical Humanities and Social Medicine, Kosin University, Busan, South Korea.
265
Department of Paediatrics, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
266
Population Health Department, Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
267
School of Optometry and Vision Science, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
268
Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.
269
Department of Psychiatry, Department of Epidemiology, Columbia University, New York City, New York, USA.
270
Department of Nephrology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, India.
271
College of Medicine, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida, USA.
272
College of Graduate Health Sciences, A.T. Still University, Mesa, Arizona, USA.
273
Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics, Contech School of Public Health, Lahore, Pakistan.
274
Department of Immunology, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.
275
Molecular and Cell Biology Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.
276
Faculty of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.
277
Sina Trauma and Surgery Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
278
School of Nursing and Healthcare Professions, Federation University, Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia.
279
National Centre for Farmer Health, Deakin University, Waurn Ponds, Victoria, Australia.
280
Society for Health and Demographic Surveillance, Suri, India.
281
Department of Economics, University of Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany.
282
Department of Pharmacology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
283
Academic Public Health Department, Public Health England, London, UK.
284
WHO Collaborating Centre for Public Health Education and Training, Imperial College London, London, UK.
285
University College London Hospitals, London, UK.
286
School of Social Sciences and Psychology, Western Sydney University, Penrith, New South Wales, Australia.
287
Brien Holden Vision Institute, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
288
Organization for the Prevention of Blindness, Paris, France.
289
Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.
290
Department of Clinical Research, Federal University of Uberlândia, Uberlândia, Brazil.
291
Golestan Research Center of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan, Iran.
292
National Institute for Research in Environmental Health, Indian Council of Medical Research, Bhopal, India.
293
College of Medicine, University of Sharjah, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.
294
Social Development & Health Promotion Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.
295
Health and Disability Intelligence Group, Ministry of Health, Wellington, New Zealand.
296
Department of Entomology, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.
297
Department of Surgery, Marshall University, Huntington, West Virginia, USA.
298
Department of Nutrition and Preventive Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.
299
Rheumatology Department, University Hospitals Bristol NHS Foundation Trust, Bristol, UK.
300
Institute of Bone and Joint Research, University of Sydney, Syndey, New South Wales, Australia.
301
Institute of Social Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia.
302
Centre-School of Public Health and Health Management, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia.
303
UGC Centre of Advanced Study in Psychology, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar, India.
304
Udyam-Global Association for Sustainable Development, Bhubaneswar, India.
305
Department of Public Health Sciences, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, North Carolina, USA.
306
School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, UK.
307
Market Access Department, Bayer, Istanbul, Turkey.
308
School of Health Sciences, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Ararangua, Brazil.
309
Department of Psychology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA.
310
Department of Psychiatry, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa.
311
Independent Consultant, Karachi, Pakistan.
312
School of Medicine, Dezful University of Medical Sciences, Dezful, Iran.
313
School of Medicine, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, Iran.
314
Chronic Diseases (Home Care) Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.
315
Centre for Medical Informatics, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.
316
Division of General Internal Medicine and Primary Care, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
317
Center for Pediatric Trauma Research, Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, Ohio, USA.
318
National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan.
319
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland.
320
Institute of Medical Epidemiology, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle, Germany.
321
Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA.
322
Medicine Service, US Department of Veteran Affairs, Birmingham, Alabama, USA.
323
Department of Epidemiology, School of Preventive Oncology, Patna, India.
324
Department of Epidemiology, Healis Sekhsaria Institute for Public Health, Mumbai, India.
325
Department of Diseases and Noncommunicable Diseases and Health Promotion, Federal Ministry of Health, Brasilia, Brazil.
326
Hospital Universitario de la Princesa, Autonomous University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
327
Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Enfermedades Respiratorias (CIBERES), Madrid, Spain.
328
Department of Research Development, Federal Research Institute for Health Organization and Informatics of the Ministry of Health (FRIHOI), Moscow, Russia.
329
Hull York Medical School, University of Hull, Hull City, UK.
330
Usher Institute of Population Health Sciences and Informatics, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.
331
Federal Research Institute for Health Organization and Informatics of the Ministry of Health (FRIHOI), Moscow, Russia.
332
Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.
333
Department of Psychology, Deakin University, Burwood, Victoria, Australia.
334
Department of Community Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.
335
Department of Anesthesiology & Pain Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.
336
Department of Criminology, Law and Society, University of California Irvine, Irvine, California, USA.
337
Department of Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.
338
Carlos III Health Institute, Biomedical Research Networking Center for Mental Health Network (CiberSAM), Madrid, Spain.
339
School of Social Work, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois, USA.
340
Department of Community Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
341
Institute of Public Health, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia.
342
School of Public Health, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.
343
School of Public Health, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.
344
Molecular Medicine and Pathology Department, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.
345
Clinical Hematology and Toxicology, Military Medical University, Hanoi, Vietnam.
346
Department of Health Economics, Hanoi Medical University, Hanoi, Vietnam.
347
Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore.
348
Division of Health Sciences, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK.
349
Department of Community Medicine, University of Nigeria Nsukka, Enugu, Nigeria.
350
Argentine Society of Medicine, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
351
Velez Sarsfield Hospital, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
352
Central Research Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Federal Research Institute for Health Organization and Informatics of the Ministry of Health (FRIHOI), Moscow, Russia.
353
Department of Statistics, University of Brasília, Brasília, Brazil.
354
Directorate of Social Studies and Policies, Federal District Planning Company, Brasília, Brazil.
355
Raffles Neuroscience Centre, Raffles Hospital, Singapore, Singapore.
356
Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.
357
Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
358
Occupational Health Unit, Sant'Orsola Malpighi Hospital, Bologna, Italy.
359
Department of Health Care Administration and Economics, National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russia.
360
Foundation University Medical College, Foundation University, Islamabad, Pakistan.
361
Department of Psychiatry, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
362
Department of Psychology and Counselling, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
363
Department of Medicine, University of Melbourne, St Albans, Victoria, Australia.
364
Institute of Health and Society, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
365
Department of Neurology, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany.
366
Centre for the Study of Regional Development, Jawahar Lal Nehru University, New Delhi, India.
367
Department of Preventive Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
368
Centre for Suicide Research and Prevention, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.
369
Department of Social Work and Social Administration, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.
370
School of Allied Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
371
Department of Psychopharmacology, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan.
372
Health Economics & Finance, Jackson State University, Jackson, Mississippi, USA.
373
School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
374
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.
375
Global Health Institute, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.
376
Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, A.C.S. Medical College and Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan.
377
Department of Epidemiology, University Hospital of Setif, Setif, Algeria.
378
Maternal and Child Health Division, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
379
Department of Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
380
Student Research Committee, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran.
381
School of Public Health and Management, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.
382
Indian Institute of Public Health, Public Health Foundation of India, Gurugram, India.
383
Department of Health Metrics Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.
384
University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Queensland, Australia.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The epidemiological transition of non-communicable diseases replacing infectious diseases as the main contributors to disease burden has been well documented in global health literature. Less focus, however, has been given to the relationship between sociodemographic changes and injury. The aim of this study was to examine the association between disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) from injury for 195 countries and territories at different levels along the development spectrum between 1990 and 2017 based on the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2017 estimates.

METHODS:

Injury mortality was estimated using the GBD mortality database, corrections for garbage coding and CODEm-the cause of death ensemble modelling tool. Morbidity estimation was based on surveys and inpatient and outpatient data sets for 30 cause-of-injury with 47 nature-of-injury categories each. The Socio-demographic Index (SDI) is a composite indicator that includes lagged income per capita, average educational attainment over age 15 years and total fertility rate.

RESULTS:

For many causes of injury, age-standardised DALY rates declined with increasing SDI, although road injury, interpersonal violence and self-harm did not follow this pattern. Particularly for self-harm opposing patterns were observed in regions with similar SDI levels. For road injuries, this effect was less pronounced.

CONCLUSIONS:

The overall global pattern is that of declining injury burden with increasing SDI. However, not all injuries follow this pattern, which suggests multiple underlying mechanisms influencing injury DALYs. There is a need for a detailed understanding of these patterns to help to inform national and global efforts to address injury-related health outcomes across the development spectrum.

KEYWORDS:

burden of disease; descriptive epidemiology; epidemiology

PMID:
31915273
DOI:
10.1136/injuryprev-2019-043296
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Conflict of interest statement

Competing interests: Dr. Carl Abelardo T Antonio reports personal fees from Johnson & Johnson (Philippines), Inc., outside the submitted work. Dr. Jasvinder Singh reports personal fees from Crealta/Horizon, Medisys, Fidia, UBM LLC, Medscape, WebMD, Clinical Care options, Clearview healthcare partners, Putnam associates, Spherix, the National Institutes of Health and the American College of Rheumatology, stock options in Amarin pharmaceuticals and Viking pharmaceuticals, participating in the steering committee of OMERACT, an international organization that develops measures for clinical trials and receives arm’s length funding from 12 pharmaceutical companies, including Amgen, Janssen, Novartis, Roche, UCB Group, Ardea/Astra Zeneca, Bristol Myers Squibb, Celgene, EliLilly, Horizon Pharma, Pfizer, and Centrexion. Dr. Josep Maria Haro reports personal fees from Roche and Lundbeck, and that the institute for which they work provides services to Eli Lilly and Co., outside the submitted work. Dr. Mete Saylan is an employee of Bayer AG, outside the submitted work. Dr Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam is funded by National Heart Foundation of Australia and supported by a senior research fellowship from Deakin University, outside the submitted work. Dr. Spencer James reports grants from Sanofi Pasteur, outside the submitted work.

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