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Inj Prev. 2020 Jan 8. pii: injuryprev-2019-043297. doi: 10.1136/injuryprev-2019-043297. [Epub ahead of print]

Epidemiology of facial fractures: incidence, prevalence and years lived with disability estimates from the Global Burden of Disease 2017 study.

Author information

1
School of Dentistry, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.
2
Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.
3
Evidence Based Practice Center, Mayo Clinic Foundation for Medical Education and Research, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.
4
Health Management and Economics Research Center, Tehran, Iran.
5
Health Economics Department, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
6
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospital Knappschaftskrankenhaus Bochum, Bochum, Germany.
7
Health Management and Economics Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
8
Chemistry Department, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.
9
Department of Hypertension, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland.
10
Polish Mothers' Memorial Hospital Research Institute, Lodz, Poland.
11
Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran.
12
Division of Plastic Surgery, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.
13
Toxoplasmosis Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.
14
Center of Excellence in Behavioral Medicine, Nguyen Tat Thanh University, Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam.
15
Center of Excellence in Health Service Management, Nguyen Tat Thanh University, Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam.
16
School of Public Health Medicine, Bielefeld University, Bielefeld, Germany.
17
Nursing Department, College of Health Science, Aksum University, Aksum, Ethiopia.
18
Nursing Department, Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia.
19
Department of Public Health, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
20
Department of Pharmacology, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
21
Obesity Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
22
Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
23
School of Health and Environmental Studies, Hamdan Bin Mohammed Smart University, Dubai, United Arab Emirates.
24
Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
25
Hematology-Oncology and Stem Cell Transplantation Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
26
Hematologic Malignancies Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
27
Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Ramtha, Jordan.
28
Department of Physiology, Baku State University, Baku, Azerbaijan.
29
Department of Public Health, Imam Muhammad Ibn Saud Islamic University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
30
Department of Health Policy and Management, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
31
Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
32
Department of Public Health, Trnava University, Trnava, Slovakia.
33
Ophthalmology Department, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
34
Ophthalmology Department, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.
35
Plastic Surgery Department, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
36
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran.
37
Department of Surgery, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.
38
Institute for Global Health Innovations, Duy Tan University, Hanoi, Vietnam.
39
Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.
40
Laboratory of Public Health Indicators Analysis and Health Digitalization, Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudny, Russia.
41
Academic Department, Unium Ltd, Moscow, Russia.
42
Biomedical Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.
43
Department of Pharmacology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
44
Department of Surgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.
45
Emergency Department, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
46
Department of Entomology, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.
47
Rheumatology Department, University Hospitals Bristol NHS Foundation Trust, Bristol, UK.
48
Institute of Bone and Joint Research, University of Sydney, Syndey, New South Wales, Australia.
49
Independent Consultant, Karachi, Pakistan.
50
Department of Health Economics, Hanoi Medical University, Hanoi, Vietnam.
51
Assistant Professor of Anatomical Sciences, Maragheh University of Medical Sciences, Maragheh, Iran.
52
Trauma Research Center, Nursing Faculty, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
53
Department of Preventive Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.
54
Department of Health Metrics Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.
55
Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA spencj@uw.edu.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD) has historically produced estimates of causes of injury such as falls but not the resulting types of injuries that occur. The objective of this study was to estimate the global incidence, prevalence and years lived with disability (YLDs) due to facial fractures and to estimate the leading injurious causes of facial fracture.

METHODS:

We obtained results from GBD 2017. First, the study estimated the incidence from each injury cause (eg, falls), and then the proportion of each cause that would result in facial fracture being the most disabling injury. Incidence, prevalence and YLDs of facial fractures are then calculated across causes.

RESULTS:

Globally, in 2017, there were 7 538 663 (95% uncertainty interval 6 116 489 to 9 493 113) new cases, 1 819 732 (1 609 419 to 2 091 618) prevalent cases, and 117 402 (73 266 to 169 689) YLDs due to facial fractures. In terms of age-standardised incidence, prevalence and YLDs, the global rates were 98 (80 to 123) per 100 000, 23 (20 to 27) per 100 000, and 2 (1 to 2) per 100 000, respectively. Facial fractures were most concentrated in Central Europe. Falls were the predominant cause in most regions.

CONCLUSIONS:

Facial fractures are predominantly caused by falls and occur worldwide. Healthcare systems and public health agencies should investigate methods of all injury prevention. It is important for healthcare systems in every part of the world to ensure access to treatment resources.

KEYWORDS:

burden of disease; dental injury; descriptive epidemiology

PMID:
31915268
DOI:
10.1136/injuryprev-2019-043297
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Conflict of interest statement

Competing interests: SLJ works on a grant for influenza and respiratory syncytial disease that is funded by Sanofi Pasteur. This work does not relate to facial fracture burden.

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