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J Psychiatr Pract. 2020 Jan;26(1):3-16. doi: 10.1097/PRA.0000000000000442.

Personality Factors and Attachment Styles as Predictors of the Therapeutic Efficacy of a Short-Term Ambulatory Intervention for Depression.

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BARTOLOMEI, ZANELLO, and BACCHETTA: Adult Psychiatric Division, Crisis Intervention Centre of Cappi Paquis, Hôpitaux Universitaires de Genève, Geneva, Switzerland; BAERISWYL-COTTIN and FRAMORANDO: Adult Psychiatric Division, Crisis Intervention Centre of Cappi Servette, Hôpitaux Universitaires de Genève, Geneva, Switzerland; HERRMANN: Division of Geriatrics, Department of Internal Medicine, Rehabilitation and Geriatrics, University of Geneva, and Hôpital des Trois-Chêne, Hôpitaux Universitaires de Genève, Geneva, Switzerland; SENTISSI: Department of Mental Health and Psychiatry, Hôpitaux Universitaires de Genève, Geneva, Switzerland.



Several studies have shown a significant positive impact of intensive short-term ambulatory psychiatric interventions for depression. However, data on outcomes related to factors that are predictive of the efficacy of these interventions in terms of remission or response to treatment remain scarce. The goal of this naturalistic prospective study was to identify factors, including Big Five Inventory personality traits and attachment style, that are predictive of the efficacy of crisis interventions (CIns) in major depressive disorder.


The study included 234 adult outpatients with major depressive disorder who completed all assessments in a study of a short-term intensive ambulatory CIn. In this study, we evaluated sociodemographic factors, and scores on the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale, the Big Five Inventory personality assessment, the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale, and the Adult Attachment Scale.


Mean scores on the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale decreased significantly from 26.3 (SD=9.0) at admission to 10.6 (SD=8.1) at the end of the CIn (t=23.9; P<0.001); 99 patients (42%) experienced remission, 151 patients (65%) were considered treatment responders, and 98 patients (42%) both responded to treatment and experienced remission. Results of multivariate regression analysis showed that education level and family intervention were associated with response to treatment. Neuroticism traits were related to a lower rate of response to treatment. The dependency dimension attachment style had a positive impact on response to treatment.


Neuroticism traits can predict clinical outcomes after a short-term intensive psychiatric intervention for depression. Results of family interviews, education level, and Global Assessment of Functioning scores should also be taken into account in predicting clinical outcomes.

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