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Am J Cancer Res. 2019 Dec 1;9(12):2789-2796. eCollection 2019.

RV-59 suppresses cytoplasmic Nrf2-mediated 5-fluorouracil resistance and tumor growth in colorectal cancer.

Author information

1
Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
2
Ph. D. for Cancer Molecular Biology and Drug Discovery, College of Medical Science and Technology, Taipei Medical University and Academia Sinica Taipei, Taiwan.
3
Translational Cancer Research Center, Taipei Medical University Taipei, Taiwan.
4
Department of R and D Calgent Biochnology CO, LTD Taipei, Taiwan.

Abstract

Our previous studies indicated that tumor invasion and 5-flurouracil (5-FU) resistance in colorectal cancer (CRC) was more affected by cytoplasmic localization of expressed Nrf2 (cNrf2) than by nuclear localization (nNrf2), indicating a need for novel antitumor agents to overcome 5-FU resistance and improve outcomes in patients with CRC. In the present study, 20 nitrogen-substituted anthra[1,2-c][1,2,5] thiadiazole-6,11-dione derivatives were collected to verify the compound most able to suppress cell growth in nuclear location sequence (NLS)-mutated Nrf2-transfected shNrf2-HCT116 stable clones that have high cNrf2 expression. The MTT assay indicated that these high-cNrf2-expressing shNrf2-HCT116 stable clones exhibited the lowest percentage survival when treated with RV-59 than with the other 19 compounds. As expected, the high-cNrf2-expressing cells also showed a higher value for the inhibitory concentration of 50% cell survival (IC50) for 5-FU when compared with Nrf2-knockdown HCT116 stable clones (17.74 μM vs. 5.34 μM). Interestingly, a lower RV-59 IC50 value was seen in the high-cNrf2-expressing stable clones than in the Nrf2-knockdown stable clones (3.55 μM vs. 16.81 μM). A similar low RV-59 IC50 value was observed in high-cNrf2-expressing NLS-mutated Nrf2-transfected shNrf2-HCT116 stable clones and p53 null (-/-) HCT116 cells (4.2 μM vs. 4.4 μM), whereas the IC50 value was 17.6 μM in normal colon FHC epithelial cells. Colony-forming assays confirmed that RV-59 treatment inhibited colony formation in NLS-mutated Nrf2-transfected shNrf2-HCT116 stable clones and in p53-/- HCT116 cells. Annexin-V/PI staining showed an involvement of apoptosis in the inhibitory effect of RV-59 on cell viability. A nude mouse xenograft tumor model showed that RV-59 efficiently suppressed tumor growth induced by transplanted NLS-mutated Nrf2-transfected shNrf2-HCT116 stable clones without affecting the body weight of the nude mice over the 37 day experimental period. These results strongly suggest that RV-59 may be a novel antitumor agent for suppression of 5-FU resistance and may have therapeutic potential for improving outcomes in patients with cNrf2-expressing tumors.

KEYWORDS:

5-fluorouracil; Nrf2; and colorectal cancer

PMID:
31911862
PMCID:
PMC6943352

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