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J Pediatr Neurosci. 2019 Oct-Dec;14(4):180-185. doi: 10.4103/jpn.JPN_83_19. Epub 2019 Dec 3.

Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate Receptor Encephalitis: A Case Series and Review of the Literature.

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Angels Speciality Clinic, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
Apollo Speciality Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
St Helens and Knowsley NHS Trust, Prescot, United Kingdom.
National Neuroscience Institute, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
Neuropedia Children's Neuroscience Center, Dubai, United Arab Emirates.


Anti-NMDAR (N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor) encephalitis is a potentially severe form of encephalitis associated with antibodies against NR1 and NR2 subunits of the NMDAR. Anti-NMDAR encephalitis is a treatable cause of encephalitis. An underlying tumor should be actively looked for as this is also considered to be a paraneoplastic syndrome. We report two children with anti-NMDAR encephalitis with a literature review of current evidence in diagnosing and managing this rare condition. Resection of the tumor, glucocorticoids, intravenous immunoglobulin, and plasma exchange often result in improvement, usually within four weeks. Outcome corresponds with the rapidity of commencing appropriate treatment.


Encephalitis; N-methyl-d-aspartate; N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor

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