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Biomark Cancer. 2019 Dec 30;11:1179299X19897255. doi: 10.1177/1179299X19897255. eCollection 2019.

Systematic Review: Genetic Associations for Prognostic Factors of Urinary Bladder Cancer.

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Institute of Cancer and Genomic Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK.
Department of Complex Genetics, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
Centre for Computational Biology, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK.
Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK.
Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.



Many germline associations have been reported for urinary bladder cancer (UBC) outcomes and prognostic characteristics. It is unclear whether there are overlapping genetic patterns for various prognostic endpoints. We aimed to review contemporary literature on genetic associations with UBC prognostic outcomes and to identify potential overlap in reported genes.


EMBASE, MEDLINE, and PubMed databases were queried for relevant articles in English language without date restrictions. The initial search identified 1346 articles. After exclusions, 112 studies have been summarized. Cumulatively, 316 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were reported across prognostic outcomes (recurrence, progression, death) and characteristics (tumor stage, grade, size, age, risk group). There were considerable differences between studied outcomes in the context of genetic associations. The most commonly reported SNPs were located in OGG1, TP53, and MDM2. For outcomes with the highest number of reported associations (ie, recurrence and death), functional enrichment annotation yields different terms, potentially indicating separate biological mechanisms.


Our study suggests that all UBC prognostic outcomes may have different biological origins with limited overlap. Further validation of these observations is essential to target a phenotype that could best predict patient outcome and advance current management practices.


Urinary bladder cancer; characteristics; prognosis; review

Conflict of interest statement

Declaration of Conflicting Interests:The author(s) declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.

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