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J Med Phys. 2019 Oct-Dec;44(4):292-297. doi: 10.4103/jmp.JMP_77_19. Epub 2019 Dec 11.

Assessment of Adult Diagnostic Reference Levels for Panoramic Radiography in Tamil Nadu Region.

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Department of Medical Physics, PSG Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India.
Department of Radiology, PSG Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India.



The aim of this study was to calculate dose area product (DAP) and to determine diagnostic reference level (DRL) for adult panoramic procedures in Tamil Nadu.

Materials and Methods:

In this study, air kerma on the front side of the secondary collimator was measured with a Black Piranha, RTI Electronics, Sweden and multiplied with the corresponding exposed area to calculate DAP. The obtained DAP values were further analyzed, and DRL was calculated using the Microsoft Excel software. The study was carried out with regular adult exposure parameters.


The mean, range, and 3rd quartile values for 67 panoramic scanners in Tamil Nadu, India, were calculated as 94 mGycm2, 41 mGycm2-165 mGycm2, and 114.3 mGycm2, respectively. The results are comparable with other international studies.


The present study suggests that further optimization can be achieved in many centers by the recruitment of professionally qualified radiographers and conducting periodic training programs on the optimization of exposure parameters. Considering this as the first study for the dental DRL assessment, further studies are suggested to establish national dental DRL in India.


Dental radiography; diagnostic reference level; dose area product; radiation protection

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